50

The Treaty of Waitangi (1840) between the British and Maori chiefs of North Island, New Zealand This treaty has "long been the subject of debate". Wikipedia's Treaty of Waitangi article goes into these differences in some details, noting that: The most critical difference between the texts revolves around the interpretation of three Māori words: ...


42

Many examples throughout history but of the top of my head I can think of- The Treaty of Wuchale between Italy and Ethiopia, where in the Italian version Ethiopia became a vassal or protectorate, but in the Ethiopian version they were more allies with the rights and privileges of a sovereign independent nation like foreign relations. The supposed breaking ...


33

There are some misconceptions about what ratification means. Though it is now common for treaties to be ratified by a legislature, that has never been essential to the ratification process. In actuality, the reason for treaty ratification is that the negotiator doesn't always have the authority to bind the nation to a treaty. In most countries, historically,...


29

I think you're asking two questions: why were such harsh conditions imposed, and why did Germany accept. As for why they were imposed: "Some also argue that the treaty was meant to permanently render Germany useless as a military might […]" — Perhaps not totally, but I think this is the answer. It's what the French wanted, and their security concerns won ...


26

UN Resolution 242 demanding withdrawal from the occupied territories in Palestine after the 1967 war. Wikipedia entry The English text has a different emphasis on territories, some might fit, whereas the matching French text seems to imply all. Pay particular attention to Article 1, subpart i. Specifically, des territoires in French, would be better ...


17

Historical Both Parties Sovereign and Remain Sovereign Anglo-Portuguese Alliance (or Aliança Luso-Britânica), ratified at the Treaty of Windsor in 1386, between England (succeeded by the United Kingdom) and Portugal is the oldest alliance in the world that is still in force – with the earliest treaty dating back to the Anglo-Portuguese Treaty of 1373. ...


16

No, there were no dates formally agreed upon. Some historians (ref. Victor Suvorov's "Icebreaker") speculate that there is indirect evidence suggesting that along with the "Communazi Pact", the specific date of joint German/Russian invasion on 1 September was agreed, but Suvorov did not provide with any documental evidence. Moreover, it ...


15

There were massive casualties on all sides, but the French had suffered the largest losses of the major Allies and the sentiment in France was extremely hostile towards Germany. French PM Clemenceau was adamant that he wanted to cripple Germany's power. As he said to Wilson: “America is far away, protected by the ocean. Not even Napoleon himself could ...


15

The Portuguese were the first westerners to reside in (then) Siam (now) Thailand. The Portuguese embassy is the oldest embassy in the kingdom, and now a monument. Do mind that the relations go back 500 years. As such they enjoyed, at that time, a special status. By the time this treaty was signed, it was purely honorary. By then Portugal was no longer an ...


15

First Nations in Canada didn't really understand what they were signing for Treaty 6. The reference for this is (I quoted a bit below) An important factor was the cultural and language differences between the First Nations and Europeans this led to misinterpretations between the two groups. While the government representatives “were the products of ...


13

You are correct, the Turkish National Movement heavily resisted treaty of Sevres which culminated in the Turkish War of independence...the treaty didn't last long. Isn't it obvious that that treaty was made to be broken at the first opportunity? Yep. And potentially intentionally. Prior to the first world war, the British subscribed to a balance of ...


12

Another angle would be that a treaty text is in just one language, but held ambiguous, on purpose, and the explanation of content presented to one party made unambiguous, and misleading on purpose, only for the deceiving party later to enforce pacta sunt servanda on one interpretation, claiming that there never was any ambiguity. That may happen even today ...


11

The armistice severely impeded the German ability to continue to wage war: They lost their submarines so could no longer counter-blockade the UK They lost their battle fleet so could no longer prevent Allied amphibious attacks They lost their frontier being forced to abandon territory West of the Rhine (with Allied bridgeheads on the East bank as well) They ...


11

It is indeed unfortunate that the influence of Morocco (and nearby countries of the Maghreb) on the early history of the United States was overlooked, because it was overshadowed by even larger events. As the questioner points out, the Treaty of Marrakesh opened the ports of Morocco to the 13 colonies, and was a form of diplomatic recognition, basically the ...


10

Through the Early Modern Era there was a long established tradition of tribute being paid by the losing side in a war. As wars became larger, longer, and more devastating through the 19th Century, so the tribute gradually became re-imagined as reparations for the costs of the war won by the victor. However, to make a long story short, The terms of the ...


9

CGPGrey covered this in his video Canada & The United States (Bizarre Borders Part 2). You're basically correct. There's been a series of treaties about the US-Canada border. Rather than go into them in detail I'll refer you to Wikipedia and the International Boundary Commission to read through the progression of the border details. And yes, the ...


9

The reactions to the Treaty by the other powers were far from swift. On one hand, communication was slow and untrustworthy, on the other hand the New World was much smaller (as mentioned in another answer). England (still Catholic) suffered from the consequences of the Wars of the Roses (1455 - 1485) and had not yet the resources. France was suffering from ...


8

On July 3, 1754, British Colonel George Washington surrendered the improvised Fort Necessity to the French. The articles of capitulation that he signed were in French, and included an admission of guilt for “L'assasin” and “l’assasinat” (the assassination) of one of their officers. Washington later claimed that this word had been translated to him as “the ...


7

If people were paying attention, March 1929 when Die Weltbühne published an account of secret German rearmament. If they weren't, rearmament was officially revealed in a speech by Hitler on March 16, 1935. Here's a list of public violations of the Versailles Treaty and public displays of military power. March 1929: Die Weltbühne publishes an account of ...


7

There are several reasons. Recognizing the urgent danger that now exists that an increase in the number of States possessing nuclear weapons may occur, aggravating international tension and the difficulty of maintaining world peace, and thus rendering more difficult the attainment of general disarmament ... Calls upon all Governments to make every effort ...


7

I assume you are not interested in fairly common cases of a new country becoming independent and the old country recognising that. An example might be section 2 of the Canada Act 1982 passed by the UK parliament at the request of the Canadian government, which said No Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom passed after the Constitution Act, 1982 ...


7

There's a European union document called 'Study on Language and Translation in International Law and EU law' which has some examples of treaties with differences because of translations. It mentions the Italy and Abyssinia one already in one answer here and also the UN resolution 242 in another answer here but there are also some other examples. A similar ...


6

A 4-part "Ideas" radio program by the CBC (Canadian Broadcasting Corporation), called "On the Line: A Journal of Exploration along the Canada - U.S. Border" (presenter Marian Fraser), aired in Nov 1986 and used a series of interviews to tell the story of the border. Ep 2, "Survey and Surveillance" has a section about the Quebec/Vermont border. Dr. Alec ...


6

Total estimates for the number of people displaced by World War II are at least as high as 60 million. The question is how many of these displaced people crossed international borders. I'm not sure, but it could easily be in the millions. So the share may be small, but still significant. Here are a couple of specific figures I am picking out of an excellent ...


6

Portugal had trading relations in Southeast Asia going back to the 16th century. The main Portuguese outpost was Macau, off the coast of China, but Siam was also an important "port of call." Either the Thais or the Americans (or both) may have felt more comfortable in Portuguese than in the other party's language.


6

That's mostly owing to the fact that, while most defensive alliances are signed in peacetime, in this case all the parties involved were already at war. Usually defensive alliances are made to deter declarations of war. The weird situation here was that all the involved parties were already at war, and weren't looking to immediately link up their ongoing ...


5

German sought an armistice in 1918. The Allies dictated the terms for the armistice which were very strict and totally one sided, the Germans accepted these terms as they were desperate for an armistice. It was in all but name a surrender, it was quite clear that the peace treaty that followed would d be a diktat, the Germans accepted the terms. The German ...


4

The Romans would accept and raise the highborn of allied tribes, hoping to Romanize their future leaders and cement their political and military relationships. Maroboduus was a ward of Augustus. Later, as king of the Marcomanni, he organized a confederation of tribes to defend against Rome. This was also the case with the Germanic Cherusci tribe, which was ...


4

A peace treaty with just Poland really makes little sense; it would have had to be a peace treaty with the Soviet Union (and the US, Britain and France) as well. Until 1990, West Germany would not have considered a peace treaty because it would mean permanently ceding East Germany. The Germans preferred to have the formal status of occupied country. After ...


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