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44

The political reasons of both France and Britain are well explained in other answers, so I just stick to the legal matter. France was not legally obliged by any pact to attack Soviet Union or to send troops to Poland to help. The 1921 Franco-Polish treaty specified the extent of help, which amounted to keeping the communication lines free between France and ...


33

Yes they did. The Treaty of Good Neighbourship and Friendly Cooperation qualifies as a "peace treaty"; see preamble and article 1 of the Polish text of the treaty. The treaty was signed in 1991 and went into force on 16 January 1992. It did not say specifically "we have had a war until today, but since tomorrow we are at peace", but it would hardly make ...


33

There are some misconceptions about what ratification means. Though it is now common for treaties to be ratified by a legislature, that has never been essential to the ratification process. In actuality, the reason for treaty ratification is that the negotiator doesn't always have the authority to bind the nation to a treaty. In most countries, historically,...


28

I think you're asking two questions: why were such harsh conditions imposed, and why did Germany accept. As for why they were imposed: "Some also argue that the treaty was meant to permanently render Germany useless as a military might […]" — Perhaps not totally, but I think this is the answer. It's what the French wanted, and their security concerns won ...


16

No, there were no dates formally agreed upon. Some historians (ref. Victor Suvorov's "Icebreaker") speculate that there is indirect evidence suggesting that along with the "Communazi Pact", the specific date of joint German/Russian invasion on 1 September was agreed, but Suvorov did not provide with any documental evidence. Moreover, it is known that ...


15

The Portuguese were the first westerners to reside in (then) Siam (now) Thailand. The Portuguese embassy is the oldest embassy in the kingdom, and now a monument. Do mind that the relations go back 500 years. As such they enjoyed, at that time, a special status. By the time this treaty was signed, it was purely honorary. By then Portugal was no longer an ...


14

On August 25, two days after the Nazi-Soviet Pact, the Agreement of Mutual Assistance between the United Kingdom and Poland was signed. The agreement contained promises of mutual military assistance between the nations in the event either was attacked by some "European country". The United Kingdom, sensing a dangerous trend of German expansionism, sought to ...


14

There were massive casualties on all sides, but the French had suffered the largest losses of the major Allies and the sentiment in France was extremely hostile towards Germany. French PM Clemenceau was adamant that he wanted to cripple Germany's power. As he said to Wilson: “America is far away, protected by the ocean. Not even Napoleon himself could ...


13

No, there was no state of war between Germany and Poland. State of war can end either with a peace treaty or with a surrender. In this case there was a surrender of Germany. Furthermore. German state ceased to exist in mid-1945. If was completely demolished and as such, its foreign relations as well. After a while two new states were instituted by the ...


12

The main problem was, that Poland and USSR were not in the state of war. The Polish government believed that Soviets will stop the aggression and forbid Polish troops to fight against Russians. It was because of a non-aggression pact since the peace treaty of Riga in 1921. The Poland did not want to break this treaty. Every assistance requested by Polish ...


12

Short answer: No Long answer: No. There were no treaties imposed on Germany in the way that the Treaty of Versailles was thrust upon Germany after WWI. As Drux mentioned in his answer Germany was divided among the quadripartite nations (United States, Russia, Great Britain, France) each governed a portion of Germany. The Potsdam Conference was where the ...


11

Contrary to what other answerers wrote, the actual situation was much stricter to Germany than after WWI. The basic fact is that post-WWII German government had no continuity with the pre-defeat one. Actually German state was completely demolished, and after a while, two new states were re-instituted. The founders of the new states were the occupying ...


10

You are correct, the Turkish National Movement heavily resisted treaty of Sevres which culminated in the Turkish War of independence...the treaty didn't last long. Isn't it obvious that that treaty was made to be broken at the first opportunity? Yep. And potentially intentionally. Prior to the first world war, the British subscribed to a balance of ...


9

Through the Early Modern Era there was a long established tradition of tribute being paid by the losing side in a war. As wars became larger, longer, and more devastating through the 19th Century, so the tribute gradually became re-imagined as reparations for the costs of the war won by the victor. However, to make a long story short, The terms of the ...


9

CGPGrey covered this in his video Canada & The United States (Bizarre Borders Part 2). You're basically correct. There's been a series of treaties about the US-Canada border. Rather than go into them in detail I'll refer you to Wikipedia and the International Boundary Commission to read through the progression of the border details. And yes, the ...


8

Britain and France regarded Germany (Hitler) as the greatest evil, and had their hands full with him Declaring war on the Soviet Union, and forcing it into a permanent alliance with Hitler would have been a big mistake. Probably they hoped that Germany and the Soviet Union would have a falling out, and the latter would become their ally. Which, in fact is ...


8

The reactions to the Treaty by the other powers were far from swift. On one hand, communication was slow and untrustworthy, on the other hand the New World was much smaller (as mentioned in another answer). England (still Catholic) suffered from the consequences of the Wars of the Roses (1455 - 1485) and had not yet the resources. France was suffering from ...


7

If people were paying attention, March 1929 when Die Weltbühne published an account of secret German rearmament. If they weren't, rearmament was officially revealed in a speech by Hitler on March 16, 1935. Here's a list of public violations of the Versailles Treaty and public displays of military power. March 1929: Die Weltbühne publishes an account of ...


6

There are several reasons. Recognizing the urgent danger that now exists that an increase in the number of States possessing nuclear weapons may occur, aggravating international tension and the difficulty of maintaining world peace, and thus rendering more difficult the attainment of general disarmament ... Calls upon all Governments to make every effort ...


6

I assume you are not interested in fairly common cases of a new country becoming independent and the old country recognising that. An example might be section 2 of the Canada Act 1982 passed by the UK parliament at the request of the Canadian government, which said No Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom passed after the Constitution Act, 1982 ...


6

A 4-part "Ideas" radio program by the CBC (Canadian Broadcasting Corporation), called "On the Line: A Journal of Exploration along the Canada - U.S. Border" (presenter Marian Fraser), aired in Nov 1986 and used a series of interviews to tell the story of the border. Ep 2, "Survey and Surveillance" has a section about the Quebec/Vermont border. Dr. Alec ...


6

Total estimates for the number of people displaced by World War II are at least as high as 60 million. The question is how many of these displaced people crossed international borders. I'm not sure, but it could easily be in the millions. So the share may be small, but still significant. Here are a couple of specific figures I am picking out of an excellent ...


6

Portugal had trading relations in Southeast Asia going back to the 16th century. The main Portuguese outpost was Macau, off the coast of China, but Siam was also an important "port of call." Either the Thais or the Americans (or both) may have felt more comfortable in Portuguese than in the other party's language.


6

That's mostly owing to the fact that, while most defensive alliances are signed in peacetime, in this case all the parties involved were already at war. Usually defensive alliances are made to deter declarations of war. The weird situation here was that all the involved parties were already at war, and weren't looking to immediately link up their ongoing ...


5

German sought an armistice in 1918. The Allies dictated the terms for the armistice which were very strict and totally one sided, the Germans accepted these terms as they were desperate for an armistice. It was in all but name a surrender, it was quite clear that the peace treaty that followed would d be a diktat, the Germans accepted the terms. The German ...


5

"Zones of influence" were primarily a means of dividing land between two or more colonising nations. This enabled these nations to avoid armed conflict while acquiring more colonies. China and Afghanistan are other examples of lands divided into zones of influence. Carving a place "Zones of influence" doesn't seem to be that different from colonisation, and ...


4

It could well be that Annobon, being farther out from the two Bights, has better sailing conditions - more access to trade winds, less likely for fleets to be caught by a contrary wind against the two shores. Thus it is more convenient as a base for ships travelling on to the far east via Africa.


4

The Romans would accept and raise the highborn of allied tribes, hoping to Romanize their future leaders and cement their political and military relationships. Maroboduus was a ward of Augustus. Later, as king of the Marcomanni, he organized a confederation of tribes to defend against Rome. This was also the case with the Germanic Cherusci tribe, which was ...


4

Most of them. I know that's kind of vague but: ...In these five years, 813 cases involving private land claims were heard by the Commission : 604 claim were confirmed; 190 rejected; and the rest were withdrawn. Of these 813 cases, only three were decided by the Board: the rest were appealed to the District court and then a majority of these were ...


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