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35

During the early stages of the Turkish War of Independence, Kemal commanded two army corps: One in Ankara and one in Erzurum. At first Erzurum was Kemal's base of operations, but on 27 December, 1919 he moved his Representative Committee to Ankara to be closer to Istanbul. Ankara also had a railway and being roughly at the center of Turkey made more sense ...


32

Two reasons: to increase literacy by simplifying the language, and to cut ties with the past (ie. the Ottomans) and forge a new secular Turkish identity. The Ottoman Turkish alphabet, a variant of Arabic, was not well suited to Turkish words and phonemes making it very hard to learn and use. In particular, Turkish has eight vowels, but vowels in Arabic are ...


31

The nature of the silk road meant that it had to pass through commercial centres. "The Silk Road was largely fragmented and very few merchants travelled the whole route. Goods were passed from one merchant to another until it reached the final buyers" source So deviation over the steppes wasn't really possible as it was not the intermediaries goal to ...


31

Turkey, like Spain and Sweden, was a country that "served the purpose" for Germany during World War II without being attacked. Specifically, Turkey was a major supplier of chrome, a key war material, both in her own right, and through "transshipments" from modern Rhodesia and South Africa. A hostile Turkey might not have been as good a supplier of such ...


19

Massacres of Armenians in the Ottoman Empire goes back to at least 1894, but they increased during WWI. What is referred to as the Armenian Genocide is however sometimes limited to the events that happened during the mass deportation of Armenians in 1915-1916. The deportations ended in March 1916, and this ended the main part of the Armenian genocide, but ...


19

The relationship between Ataturk and Lenin created a minor controversy in Turkey in 2008, when the Atatürk Thought Association used a banner showing them side by side: A public prosecutor's office in İstanbul has reportedly launched a probe into the Atatürkist Thought Association (ADD) over its use of a banner showing Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the founder of ...


19

Please note that Abdülhamid II was long gone when World War I broke out. You might blame him for the 1895-6 massacres or the 1909 Adana massacre, but he wasn't responsible for what happened during the World War. It wasn't even the ruling Sultan, but rather the nationalist Young Turks who orchestrated Ottoman involvement in the war and organised the cleansing ...


16

First of all, France's goal is not to "undermine its relationship with Turkey" as you have implied. Instead, this is a product of France's policy of recognising what happened during WWI as a genocide. I believe the most important part of your question is why has France been the most assertive when it comes to recognition of the Armenian genocide. This comes ...


16

After the war between Greece and Turkey in the aftermath of WW I the two countries agreed on an exchange of minorities. But the question of who was “Greek” and who was “Turkish” was decided entirely on the basis of religion (and not language etc.). This means the ethnic Greek (Greek-speaking) converts to Islam were classified as Turks and deported to Turkey. ...


15

Just take a look at any political map, let it be Classical period, or early Medieval times. When travelling to China you need water, supplies of food, fodder, etc. Also it's safer to spend a night in a city or some kind of inn instead of open steppe spaces. Then what Joe mentioned, between the cities you've got roads, which again - are safer. South of Black ...


15

I've had similar questions over the years, and did some research on this. Let me admit, though, my interest comes from a different angle. I was originally thinking why didn't the USSR invade Turkey somewhere around 1939 - 1941? But I will try to answer your question about why Germany didn't do it. There's a phrase I know that goes something like this: Good ...


12

As others have pointed out in various comments, a connection between the two sites is extremely unlikely. In particular, Stonehenge became a cultural center only around 3100 BCE, 5000 years after Göpekli Tepe was abandoned (unless you count the Mesolithic layer which was very different from the later monument). What is more, the locations are some 3000 km ...


11

As a matter of fact, I found the source, although curiously it does not say exactly what people quoting it seems to imply: Some slightly better informed claims directed to article 166 of Turkish penal code of 1911. As my knowledge of pre-Ataturk legal Turkish jargon is a bit lacking1 and all the sites claiming against gun control failed to provide the ...


10

Peter greatly underestimated the size and speed of the Ottoman army, overestimated his chances to peel away Ottoman vassals as allies, allowed his supply lines to be disrupted, and misread the terrain and Ottoman maneuvers, bogging his forces down in a marsh. This should have been the end of Peter the Great, but his reputation and the timidity of the ...


10

When Turks arrived in what is modern-day Turkey, they were already Muslims. The Battle of Malazgirt/Manzikirt between the ancestors of modern Turks and the Byzantine Empire marks the start of this large-scale migration by Turkic tribes. The various groups who constituted the migration were not homogeneous: there were Karakoyunlu, Akkoyunlu, Turkmen and so ...


10

This or other similar questions are very much debated, and does not have a simple answer. One shall start by asking who is a Greek, and who is a Turk. Throughout the history, in the geography where Turkey is situated today, hundreds of different civilizations had lived, and one replaced the other. Hellenization of Asia Minor and beyond reached its climax ...


10

There's no scientific definition of "race", so that part of the question is unanswerable. Linguists do try to classify languages though, since that can be done (mostly) objectively, based on similarity of grammar and words. One popular theory has been Turkic languages and Mongolic languages are part of a larger family of languages, named Altaic. Today ...


10

You are correct, the Turkish National Movement heavily resisted treaty of Sevres which culminated in the Turkish War of independence...the treaty didn't last long. Isn't it obvious that that treaty was made to be broken at the first opportunity? Yep. And potentially intentionally. Prior to the first world war, the British subscribed to a balance of ...


9

As with the case of France, Turkey's objective is not to have worse relations with Israel. Instead the worsening of relations between Turkey and Israel is a product of internal issues on both sides. Turkey and Israel do have a long history of military cooperation and coordination. Furthermore, Turkey has bought military equipment from Israel (tanks and ...


8

in the current historical view has the onset of agriculture stimulate permanent settlements, and food surplus and storage allow the onset of specialized "careers" (including priests) This is incorrect. Permanent settlements and specialized societies require large food surpluses. This is generally produced by agriculture, but can also (in rare cases) be ...


8

The Silk Way was not a single road, but rather a net of roads. And the ways Amudarja/Uzboj (Amudarja went to Caspian Sea till 16 Century, for example) - Caspian Sea - Volga - Don - Azov sea - Black sea - Konstantinople (variant: Aral-Caspian Sea by foot) was in use -especially for long periods when Amudarja was switched to the Caspian Sea and some stable ...


8

The 11th ed. of the Encyclopaedia Britannica (published in 1911) provides a specific answer as to when. The why can perhaps be inferred from its somewhat anti-Turkish language (tortuous, mean) and the historical events around independence in 1879. Since 1880 the city has been almost entirely renovated in the "European" style; the narrow tortuous lanes ...


8

Hitler wasn't interested in Turkey in itself, but let's analyse this option as a means to an end. Hitler went to war as he wanted "Lebensraum" for his people, literally, "living room" and for that he needed Russia, specifically the Ukraine and European Russia. Turkey did not offer this, it's a difficult country to move around with poor (at the time) ...


8

Reaching the Middle eastern Oilfields which are on the Persian Gulf is a lot harder than it looks, and getting the Oil back even harder. The railways don't go all the way and the Turkish railways were pretty low volume. Shipping just forget that the Axis dint have the tankers and RN would just sink them (too many bases not enough escorts). To rail the Oil ...


8

Ataturk was not the architect of this exchange. The idea of protecting minorities in former Ottoman Empire came from the western Allies - according to the wiki article on the Lausanne Conference, second-priority goals of Britain included "measures for the protection of the minorities in Turkey". Moreover, the article you linked names Fridjof Nansen, high ...


8

Of course, many stipulations of the treaty are still in effect. The borders it delimited remains the international border of today. The Republic of Turkey continues to be recognised internationally. The ancient capitulations are still abolished. The forced population exchanges have happened and are not being reversed. Control of the Turkish Straits, as you ...


7

Is the question: "Why did the Great Britain not assist Greek expansionism in the Aegean (specifically Asia Minor/Anatolia) at the expense of the Turks?" Well Jon Custer's comment that war-weariness on the part of the Allies played a role is true. None of the nations in the Entente had appetite for continuing a costly war. The Treaty of Sevres outlined the ...


7

First, Turkish people are not in general considered of Mongoloid race, neither are Turkic-speaking Azeris. These two peoples are usually classified to belong to Europoid race with maybe only admixture of Mongoloids. Second, there is a lot of Turkic-speaking peoples that are indeed classified Mongoloid: Kazakhs, Kyrgyz, Uzbek, Turkmen. The reason is that ...


6

Originally the mosaics probably survived, Fergusson writing: The frescoes and mosaics have, indeed disappeared from the body of the church, hidden, it is to be hoped, under the mass of whitewash which covers its walls--in the narthex they can still be distinguished. A History of Architecture in All Countries by James Fergusson (1874), p.442. However,...


6

My family came from Western Ukraine and my grandfather attended University in Chernotsy and Vienna. He said that historically our family were merchants on a branch of the Silk Road that ran through Ukraine. Ukraine was a bulwark in the hundreds of years of warfare between Europe and Turkey and it is absurd to think that a substantial amount of trade did ...


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