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64

Q Is rye bread Turkish? Are Swedes Africans? If you find the 'African Swedes' question senseless, then you see the level of absurdity the ad is playing on. If you answer 'Swedes are Africans' in the affirmative, then Rye bread is Turkish' might have a broken and wobbly leg to stand on. Swedes are humans, humans originate from Africa. True. But a long time ...


41

Well rye itself (the grain) appears to have first been domesticated in Anatolia, around 6,500 BC. So of course Neolithic people there (modern Turkey) would have been the first to make rye bread.* As for why it became popular in Scandinavia, that probably shouldn't be a mystery either. The European staple grains of wheat, barley, and rye are all closely ...


37

Two reasons: to increase literacy by simplifying the language, and to cut ties with the past (ie. the Ottomans) and forge a new secular Turkish identity. The Ottoman Turkish alphabet, a variant of Arabic, was not well suited to Turkish words and phonemes making it very hard to learn and use. In particular, Turkish has eight vowels, but vowels in Arabic are ...


36

During the early stages of the Turkish War of Independence, Kemal commanded two army corps: One in Ankara and one in Erzurum. At first Erzurum was Kemal's base of operations, but on 27 December, 1919 he moved his Representative Committee to Ankara to be closer to Istanbul. Ankara also had a railway and being roughly at the center of Turkey made more sense ...


35

Turkey, like Spain and Sweden, was a country that "served the purpose" for Germany during World War II without being attacked. Specifically, Turkey was a major supplier of chrome, a key war material, both in her own right, and through "transshipments" from modern Rhodesia and South Africa. A hostile Turkey might not have been as good a supplier of such ...


26

I think the other answer misses some crucial distinctions. Culture The culture of the Seljuks was non-Greco-Roman; the same applies to their language. A good summary of who they were comes from Gibbon (Chapter 57): Since the first conquests of the caliphs, the establishment of the Turks in Anatolia or Asia Minor was the most deplorable loss which the ...


20

Massacres of Armenians in the Ottoman Empire goes back to at least 1894, but they increased during WWI. What is referred to as the Armenian Genocide is however sometimes limited to the events that happened during the mass deportation of Armenians in 1915-1916. The deportations ended in March 1916, and this ended the main part of the Armenian genocide, but ...


19

I've had similar questions over the years, and did some research on this. Let me admit, though, my interest comes from a different angle. I was originally thinking why didn't the USSR invade Turkey somewhere around 1939 - 1941? But I will try to answer your question about why Germany didn't do it. There's a phrase I know that goes something like this: Good ...


17

This or other similar questions are very much debated, and does not have a simple answer. One shall start by asking who is a Greek, and who is a Turk. Throughout the history, in the geography where Turkey is situated today, hundreds of different civilizations had lived, and one replaced the other. Hellenization of Asia Minor and beyond reached its climax ...


17

After the war between Greece and Turkey in the aftermath of WW I the two countries agreed on an exchange of minorities. But the question of who was “Greek” and who was “Turkish” was decided entirely on the basis of religion (and not language etc.). This means the ethnic Greek (Greek-speaking) converts to Islam were classified as Turks and deported to Turkey. ...


16

As others have pointed out in various comments, a connection between the two sites is extremely unlikely. In particular, Stonehenge became a cultural center only around 3100 BCE, 5000 years after Göpekli Tepe was abandoned (unless you count the Mesolithic layer which was very different from the later monument). What is more, the locations are some 3000 km ...


14

Turkey and Azerbaijan are historically the same nation. The slogan is "one nation two states". So Sunni/Shia difference is not very important. Both countries also have important economic ties such as gas and oil pipelines. In addition, both countries had conflicts with Armenia. So alliance is natural Iran has a major Azeri population. Historically ...


13

You are correct, the Turkish National Movement heavily resisted treaty of Sevres which culminated in the Turkish War of independence...the treaty didn't last long. Isn't it obvious that that treaty was made to be broken at the first opportunity? Yep. And potentially intentionally. Prior to the first world war, the British subscribed to a balance of ...


12

Your reading of how alliances work is a bit too on the nose. Religious and political links are a major factor. But they definitely aren't the only one. The word 'technically' is misapplied here. Another factor is common adversaries. Azerbaijan has a long running conflict with Armenia, as you know. Turkey has also had major conflicts with Armenia. This is a ...


11

As a matter of fact, I found the source, although curiously it does not say exactly what people quoting it seems to imply: Some slightly better informed claims directed to article 166 of Turkish penal code of 1911. As my knowledge of pre-Ataturk legal Turkish jargon is a bit lacking1 and all the sites claiming against gun control failed to provide the ...


10

Peter greatly underestimated the size and speed of the Ottoman army, overestimated his chances to peel away Ottoman vassals as allies, allowed his supply lines to be disrupted, and misread the terrain and Ottoman maneuvers, bogging his forces down in a marsh. This should have been the end of Peter the Great, but his reputation and the timidity of the ...


10

There's no scientific definition of "race", so that part of the question is unanswerable. Linguists do try to classify languages though, since that can be done (mostly) objectively, based on similarity of grammar and words. One popular theory has been Turkic languages and Mongolic languages are part of a larger family of languages, named Altaic. Today ...


10

The exact quote or close variants of it never show up with a proper source attribution. That is usually a sign that those typing these words cannot name one. And I tend to dismiss all of these cases as abuse and severe distortions or even malevolent inventions. The searched sources included search engines, newspapers from 1964, a biography of Makarios, ...


8

Reaching the Middle eastern Oilfields which are on the Persian Gulf is a lot harder than it looks, and getting the Oil back even harder. The railways don't go all the way and the Turkish railways were pretty low volume. Shipping just forget that the Axis dint have the tankers and RN would just sink them (too many bases not enough escorts). To rail the Oil ...


8

Is the question: "Why did the Great Britain not assist Greek expansionism in the Aegean (specifically Asia Minor/Anatolia) at the expense of the Turks?" Well Jon Custer's comment that war-weariness on the part of the Allies played a role is true. None of the nations in the Entente had appetite for continuing a costly war. The Treaty of Sevres outlined the ...


8

Ataturk was not the architect of this exchange. The idea of protecting minorities in former Ottoman Empire came from the western Allies - according to the wiki article on the Lausanne Conference, second-priority goals of Britain included "measures for the protection of the minorities in Turkey". Moreover, the article you linked names Fridjof Nansen, high ...


8

Of course, many stipulations of the treaty are still in effect. The borders it delimited remains the international border of today. The Republic of Turkey continues to be recognised internationally. The ancient capitulations are still abolished. The forced population exchanges have happened and are not being reversed. Control of the Turkish Straits, as you ...


8

Turkey was and to a certain degree still is of pivotal strategic importance for US interests in the region. As a member of NATO,Turkey, among other considerations: controls access between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean and thereby limits the potential of the Soviet Black Sea Fleet, is proximate and increases military access to Middle Eastern oil fields,...


7

They melted in with the local population. In Turkey there's no such notion of pure race. I'm from a village located within the Black Sea region of Turkey. We have bazaar which are in ruins today left over from Greek villagers. However there are some Greek origin Muslims living in Trabzon area which still speak the language.


7

Hitler wasn't interested in Turkey in itself, but let's analyse this option as a means to an end. Hitler went to war as he wanted "Lebensraum" for his people, literally, "living room" and for that he needed Russia, specifically the Ukraine and European Russia. Turkey did not offer this, it's a difficult country to move around with poor (at the time) ...


7

First, Turkish people are not in general considered of Mongoloid race, neither are Turkic-speaking Azeris. These two peoples are usually classified to belong to Europoid race with maybe only admixture of Mongoloids. Second, there is a lot of Turkic-speaking peoples that are indeed classified Mongoloid: Kazakhs, Kyrgyz, Uzbek, Turkmen. The reason is that ...


6

Originally the mosaics probably survived, Fergusson writing: The frescoes and mosaics have, indeed disappeared from the body of the church, hidden, it is to be hoped, under the mass of whitewash which covers its walls--in the narthex they can still be distinguished. A History of Architecture in All Countries by James Fergusson (1874), p.442. However,...


6

My family came from Western Ukraine and my grandfather attended University in Chernotsy and Vienna. He said that historically our family were merchants on a branch of the Silk Road that ran through Ukraine. Ukraine was a bulwark in the hundreds of years of warfare between Europe and Turkey and it is absurd to think that a substantial amount of trade did ...


6

Ethnic Turks first embraced Islam when they met the expanding Arab empire in modern day Iran (and slightly to the north and east). This was where the Turks had settled, and the Arabs were conquering in the late seventh, and eight centuries A.D. The Arabs feared Turkish military prowess more than that of the longer-term "locals," and offered economic and ...


6

Although many of the Muslims in Greece were deported to Turkey, some ended up in other places. In Crete, most of the Muslims were Greeks who had converted. There was a massacre by Greek nationalists at the end of the 19th century and many fled to other parts of what was still the Ottoman empire. Although many ended up in what is now Turkey (especially ...


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