43

Actually the motivation is pretty well-known. The motivation for the invasion of Spain was similar to that of all Muslim conquest of the period. Islamic armies under the command of the "The Rightly Guided Caliphs" and the following Umayyad and Abbasid caliphs benefited from a unifying religion to form a large and motivated armed forces, out of what had ...


19

If your textbook indeed says this, it is evidently biased. First of all, these things (the Caliphate, the Mongol Empire, and European empires) belong to very different historical periods, and thus cannot be compared. The "world standards" of what is considered "benevolent" and "tolerant" are changing with time. For example, in antiquity and during most of ...


15

During the battle of Tours, the invading Muslim leader, Emir Abd al Rahman was killed, which represented a major setback for them. After winning the battle in 732, the Frankish leader Charles Martel followed up his victory by "cleaning out" Muslim enclaves established in southern France, meaning that they had lost the initiative. By about 750, the Ummayad ...


11

The "Moors" were a very diverse group. The first invading "Moors" were Arabs and Berbers from North Africa, the Berbers being descended from the Moors of Classical antiquity and thus probably mostly looking like other Mediterranean people. A lot of native Spaniards converted to Islam over the centuries, and so a lot of "Moors" looked like native Spaniards ...


10

Peter C. Scales:The Fall of the Caliphate of Cordoba: Berbers and Andalusis in Conflict (Medieval Iberian Peninsula, Vol 9), the source linked in the answer by @Mr.lock / @Kobunite actually hints at a plausible answer to OP's question, namely that Abd al-Rahman was recognized when he arrived in al-Andalus because members of the Umayyad family had already ...


9

Consider this doctoral dissertation: The hammer and the crescent: Contacts between Andalusi Muslims, Franks, and their successors in three waves of Muslim expansion into Francia, available at https://repository.upenn.edu/dissertations/AAI9112639/ It is based on an analysis of the original source material. You can preview the introductory chapter for free.


6

Because they had just lost the battle of Masts to Muawiya bin abu sufyan in the previous year (655). The emperor Constans II was almost killed. And notice, when the pressure from the East was really weaker, in 668, he fought the Slavs to the North. And only in 659 "he campaigned far to the east, taking advantage of a rebellion against the Caliphate in ...


5

I am afraid that this might only be a legend. From historical sources, we know that Zoos existed since ancient times as Menageries. First such instance would be in Heirakonpolis, Egypt which existed roughly around 3500 BC. (Which is several thousand years before establishment of Umayyad Caliphate of Damascus or Abbasid Caliphate of Baghdad). In Levant, ...


5

"because it was there". If the Moors were going to invade anyplace under the leadership of their Arab overlords it would have to be either Spain to the north or parts of Africa to the southwest, south, and southeast - and those regions of Africa were bordered by or actually in the bare and barren Sahara desert. Because Spain was wealthier than the Sahara, ...


4

I am no expert on the topic, but I know Arabic and I have access to sources in Arabic (but disclaimer, I am a Sunni Muslim, so my sources are "Wahhabist" sources, and I do not agree with that misleading term "Wahhabism", but just you would understand). From Al Alukah Website, an author called Shareef AbdulAziz Al-Zuhairi wrote: "The Sad Ending: The new ...


4

Other than Suleyman's notorious short temper and tendency to keep grudges against people who caused offence whether real or imaginary, With further reading, it looks like that It wasn't Suleyman that the Generals personally disliked, rather his alliances. For context, Umayyads themselves were Adnanite Arabs (Qaysids) but Princes and Caliphs often allied ...


3

I believe it was the exotic nature they were going for. Moor came to equate with foreign and negroid people were the most foreign looking at the time. There is also St Maurice who was depicted as Negroid from at least the 13th century. His depiction varies from Roman soldier to negro dressed as a knight. While the original St Maurice came from Thebes, Egypt,...


3

From "The First Dynasty of Islam: The Umayyad Caliphate AD 661-750" by G. R Hawting: It seems likely that it was not until the later part of the Umayyad period that traditions, religious or historical (and the distinction is not always clear), came to be committed to writing with any frequency. Before that time they were generally transmitted orally ...


2

The Muslims did not pursue a convert-all policy in their conquered territories, one reason being that that would cause revolts and make those territories terribly difficult to manage. But this doesn't mean that there weren't any initial conversions. As Hugh Kennedy puts it in his The Great Arab Conquests: Attraction, not coercion, was the key to the ...


2

Yazid went by the standards of the day, but went about them in a somewhat twisted way. Women and children were off-limits for killing, but anyone who took up arms against him was killed. Husayn was holding his six-month-old son in a gesture of peacemaking, but both were killed when he approached Yazid's army. Likewise, while they spared Ali ibn Husayn Zayn ...


1

The key is the theoretical term "Imaginary." The imaginary is a post-structuralist influenced term which claims that cultures have, effectively, a collective subconscious. As you note the "imaginary" of the Muslim from North Africa stabilised on a black or dark depiction long before the triangle trade reformed Western European racism on an economic basis. ...


1

Abd al-Rahman I's mother was a Moor from a tribe called Nafra (click the link for pg 111). That helped him to be recognized first in Morocco and then in Islamic Spain as well.


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