Use this tag for questions specifically about Umayyad Caliphate, a medieval Empire which existed from 661-750 AD based in Syria and later established itself in Iberian peninsula from 756-1031 AD. It spanned over a number of Asian, North African, European, Caucasian countries. If your question is about the Syrian branch of the Empire, add the [syria] tag along with this tag. For Hispanic branch, use the [spain] tag instead.
Umayyad Caliphate was a medieval empire which existed from 661-750 AD as dominant power of Asia and claimed Caliphate of Islam. It was founded by Muawiya I in 661 AD with Damascus as its capital and succeeded Rashidun as the Caliphs of Islam. The empire grew rapidly from India in East to Spain in the West.
After death of Hisham II, the Empire began to decline and was overthrown by a popular revolt under Abbasids who took the Empire and office of Caliphate for themselves.
One prince, Abdul-Rahman, grandson of Hisham II, escaped to Western province of Andalusia where he was received by loyalist garrisons of Syrian troops. With their help, he restored the Umayyad rule in Hispania 756 AD, choosing Cordoba as his capital. The Hispanic branch continued to rule until being deposed by Nobles in 1031 AD.