98

There is a name in the medical community for those who rely on withdrawal as a contraception method - such people are referred to as "parents". Your average high school health textbook will give you the success rate for various types of pre-modern contraception. (Remember that artificial contraception was illegal in some countries). Childhood mortality ...


93

Ref. Das Boot showing a similar chain of command (although only with one additional person). The lieutenant commander gives orders to the watch officer, who passes them below deck. The commander could pass them himself, but doesn't, for the same reasons the officers in your movie don't. Hunt for Red October has a similar scene, and they are really on a timer....


57

Google Books has a copy of Bradshaw's Guide from 1887. To get to Paris, they recommended one of four options: The numbers in the three rightmost columns are, respectively: approximate first-class fare (in pounds, shillings, and pence); approximate second-class fare; and time (in days and hours.) The absolute quickest door-to-door route was via ...


32

Actually, by 1881 the use of children as chimney sweeps had been abolished in the UK. In 1840, the UK Parliament had passed a revised Chimney Sweeps Act which had raised the minimum age at which children could be "apprenticed" to chimney sweeps to 16. Unfortunately, the act was never enforced, and it was widely ignored. Finally, the Chimney Sweepers Act ...


31

Clarity for the soldiers. Imagine you are a a rifleman standing or crouching somewhere during the battle. The colonel says in your hearing "hold this position." The captain says "first platoon, face left." The lieutenant says "third section, infantry on the slope, five rounds rapid, then fall back." What are you to do? Are you supposed to judge how falling ...


25

You are right to say that 14 children is larger than most families of the period, particularly if they all had the same mother. Death in childbirth was not uncommon at that time. One of my Victorian ancestors had 12 siblings, all with the same mother. Another ancestor was one of 11 children, but the father had re-married after his first wife died in ...


19

Movies portray people as having separate beds to get around strict censorship laws which were derived from old religious traditions. In reality, there have been many such movements for and against sleeping together, and it appears to have gone in and out of style through the ages.


18

Bookshops were certainly becoming more common in Victorian England. In fact, the entire printed world exploded in the 19th century. Most of it was concentrated in London, which by 1860 housed 812 booksellers, of whom 211 were also publishers.1 Edinburgh, the Scottish capital, was home to another 120 booksellers, with 30 also publishing. In contrast, the ...


16

This page on London during the Victorian era offers (emphasis mine): Further, there are the streets and districts for particular trades, as Long Acre, where the carriage-makers abound; and Lombard Street, where the bankers love to congregate; and Clerkenwell, the district for the watch-makers; and Hatton Garden for the Italian glass-blowers; and the ...


15

SHORT ANSWER Probably the most widely expressed view on American Independence from Britain was that it was inevitable. Whig historians, in particular, also say the revolution was justifiable and that the colonists' cause was a just one. Some writers also express regret, particularly that the separation did not happen peacefully. On the Founding Fathers, ...


14

There are some atlases for 1890 or thereabouts on the internet archive. This one here is exactly 1890. The world-wide atlas of modern geography, political and physical, containing one hundred and twelve plates and complete index [cartographic material] There are plenty of others at this link (but not necessarily 1890). https://archive.org/details/...


13

A young lady from the Victorian era would not walk that distance. A young lady would be driven that distance in the family coach. If the young lady is running away from her family, or other circumstances force her to travel the distance on foot and unassisted, my hiking experience says it would take about four hours, and she'd limp into town with sore, ...


13

This is absolutely no different from a modern office environment. The only person I take orders from is my supervisor. Anyone above/outside him will be politely told, "I need to check that with Mr. M." or "Please coordinate that through Mr. M". (In many cases it is illegal for me to take direction from anyone other than Mr. M.; it can result in civil/...


11

(The maps are from an Atlas Obscura article on Isochronic maps and the wikipedia entry on German Railways.) Here's an isochronic map centered on London from the early 1880s to give a feel of how long it would take ~20 years later: The German rail network in 1861 suggests there already was a track nearby (you can see a track between Eisenach and Bamberg if ...


11

One influence on families in "Victorian" times was Queen Victoria herself. She had nine children, despite having been an "only" child. This was despite the fact that she had access to any birth control that was available. She was nicknamed the "Grandmother of Europe" because of her 42 grandchildren, but that represents an average of "only" 4.7 children to ...


11

As stated by this British Army Doctrine Publication, an clear chain of command strengthens integration between formations and units and enhances unity of effort. Subordinates must be in no doubt as to the command state within which they are operating, to whom they are responsible and for what. The chain of command in the British army at the turn of ...


11

So I think there are two questions at play here: Did boys wear dresses when they were young? Did they do this to make children sexless? The way the article is written, it seems to conflate the two. I feel like the best way to answer your question is to address both points separately. So that's what I'll do. So the answer to the first is yes. As you ...


10

This is a case of survivorship bias. Your great-...-greatparents had lots of children so some survived and some of those who survived had lots of children, and of those some had children and some survived etc. It looks like everybody's grand-...-parents had a lot of children because those who did not have lots of children do not have descendants to be ...


10

Is it correct? I am pleased to say that there is no authority that can deem a term correct or incorrect. There are no language police. (See Aside #1) If you use the term Victorian Era, you will (probably) be understood. Although Victoria was only Queen of the Commonwealth, the sun never set on her territory, and even where she did not rule, she influenced (...


10

There isn't, and never has been, a French equivalent of the Victorian Era in the sense of moral rigidity and the dominance of the bourgeoisie. As evidence I submit the concept of the French Postcard (warning - adult content beyond link) which nearly every Victorian gentleman traveling on the Continent would send to his male friends for their amusement. The ...


10

The earliest copy of this melody is from 1893, with the song "Good morning to all" by Patty Hill and Mildred J. Hill. It was published in a songbook titled Song Stories for the Kindergarten. The lyrics to "Happy Birthday to you" appears in the early 20th century. The first reliable source for these lyrics being used with the "Good morning" melody is from ...


10

Well, we do have an example of a literary heroine of that age who walks about half that distance in a morning's walk: Elizabeth Bennet in Pride and Prejudice (Chapter VII) walks three miles, across fields and stiles, the day after a heavy rain, to be able to reach her sister when she has fallen ill while visiting the Bingleys. The time it takes is not seen ...


10

In interested circles of archaeology the discovery of Gilgamesh epos was a sensation as well. Old writings 'from the time of biblical history'. And obviously originals, not copies of copies. Deciphering and translating them was a great show of scientific progress and greatly increased the popularity of the study and translation of cuneiform texts. But the ...


8

The statistical illustration published by the BBC of Hatton's data is misleading, The Economist is different: The original paper is Timothy J. Hatton: "How have Europeans grown so tall?", Oxford Economic Papers, Volume 66, Issue 2, 1 April 2014, Pages 349–372. Increases in human stature are a key indicator of improvements in the average health ...


8

Yes the presses were in the offices in Fleet Street. For a picture see wikipedia picture entitled "New_Daily_Telegraph_Offices_Fleet_Street_ILN_1882" from the Illustrated London News in 1882 Another article gives this as credit: HERITAGE-IMAGES/PRINT COLLECTOR


7

This is, presumably unintentionally, a trick question. There were no Dukes of England, Great Britain or United Kingdom who were elevated in the Victorian era in their late twenties to early forties, on the death of their father, while unmarried and while their mother was still alive! Even if there were, this question is, effectively, unanswerable. In terms ...


6

tl; dr Yes, you could get bail in the Victorian period. No, it didn't have to be in cash. Yes, someone else could provide the sureties required by the court. Some women could provide the sureties required by the court if they wished to. Wives could only do so in the later part of the Victorian period (when they were actually permitted to own property in ...


6

From Sketch of the Mode of Manufacturing Gunpowder at the Ishapore Mills in Bengal: Published in 1862. The English service powders cost 5£. upwards for the 100 lbs say 50 rupees. The best sporting powders sell in London about 2s to 3s per lb, 10£. to 15£. the 100 lbs. Blasting powder is sold by dealers at from 50s to 75s per 100 lbs. The entire ...


6

Hardly an "academic" answer, I'm a middle-aged (alright, elderly) woman with no military experience, though from a family of soldiers - but it seems blindingly obvious to me. Officers have to communicate with each other, and with those under their command, clearly and unambiguously. A non-military analogy (with no inferences re hierarchy to be drawn!) - ...


6

A search through archive of The Gazette (London), Official Public Record for the U.K., turns up: 22 November 1892; Issue:26347, Page:6589 & 6591: 9 May 1893; Issue:26399, Page:2692 & 4 So the company was dissolved as of May 9, 1893, for failing to respond to the notice of intent to dissolve published 22 November, 1892. There is no asterix on ...


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