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13

The short answer is we're not sure. When the Roman State was in decline and had to withdraw from England, (coincidentally?) Germanic tribal power was on the increase. That left a power vacuum in England at the same latitudes that coastal Germanic tribes were already living on the opposite shore of the North Sea. Unfortunately, it also left a literacy vacuum,...


8

In Old English (Anglo Saxon), a bönder or bönda was a freeman (Norse bóndi / bóandi). However, there were various degrees of "freeman". In Anglo Saxon England, the lowest of these classes was called a ceorl, and above them was a theign. In Sweden, the equivalent grades of freemen were simply bönder and odalbönder, defined under the "odal" concept. ...


5

There is this recent study: Jackson et. al. Disequilibrium, Adaptation, and the Norse Settlement of Greenland Under "Cultural Contact" they write "Little is known of the possible interactions between either the Dorset Paleo-Eskimo or the later Thule Inuit and Greenland Norse, and hostilities mentioned in the Vinland Sagas and Ivar Bardarson’s accounts ...


4

Question: Is it true that Christian English monks adopted Norse hairstyles before the start of the Viking age? Short Answer Not monks nobles not before Lindisfarne but just after. Yes it's true vikings(Norsemen) traveled to Britain before the age of Vikings and Lindisfarne(June 8, 793). Anglo Saxons who invaded the British Islands after the Roman Period ...


4

Answer revised to a Yes: jamesqf correctly pointed out the example of the Varangian Guard in Constantinople. Back in Scandinavia, Viking burial materials were found to carry Arabic and Muslim motifs. Metcalf's paper What happened to Islamic dirhams after their arrival in the Northern Lands? discusses hoards of coinage acquired directly from the mints far to ...


3

I believe Heathguard is a related to the common surname name "Heyward". The "W" and "G" sounds are related between German and French: "Ward" => "Guard" just like "William" => "Guillaume" "Hey" is related to "hedge". Hedges were used to separate tracts of farmland. "heather" is also a type of hedge. A "Heyward" is someone who guards property lines. ...


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