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13

The short answer is we're not sure. When the Roman State was in decline and had to withdraw from England, (coincidentally?) Germanic tribal power was on the increase. That left a power vacuum in England at the same latitudes that coastal Germanic tribes were already living on the opposite shore of the North Sea. Unfortunately, it also left a literacy vacuum,...


8

In Old English (Anglo Saxon), a bönder or bönda was a freeman (Norse bóndi / bóandi). However, there were various degrees of "freeman". In Anglo Saxon England, the lowest of these classes was called a ceorl, and above them was a theign. In Sweden, the equivalent grades of freemen were simply bönder and odalbönder, defined under the "odal" concept. ...


7

It appears that he's saying (starting at about 1:40 in) the "typical standardized form" we are familiar with for Old Norse and Old English are the Old Icelandic sagas (1250AD), and Late West Saxon (1000), which bakes in an extra few hundred years of linguistic drift over 800's northern England. So the two would have been a bit more mutually ...


6

I'm going to go with a "Yes, there was debate" but only to highlight that the British Isles are a large geographic region. Near enough any bearing between 215° and 295°, coming out of the Skagerrak and Kattegat, would be sufficient to get one to a place on the British Isles. Of course, a good question is whether there's anything to do in those ...


3

I believe Heathguard is a related to the common surname name "Heyward". The "W" and "G" sounds are related between German and French: "Ward" => "Guard" just like "William" => "Guillaume" "Hey" is related to "hedge". Hedges were used to separate tracts of farmland. "heather" is also a type of hedge. A "Heyward" is someone who guards property lines. ...


2

I believe your question, or at least the documentary you are referencing, may be referring to a much later event. The 'complaint' you mention is found in a letter from Ælfric of Eynsham to an individual identified as 'brother Edward', and details three different behaviors the Abbot finds distressing; eating blood, assuming Danish customs, and eating on the ...


1

Ancient norse-peoples definitely did know about Britain. After-all, it was the early vikings in 367ad which had a great deal to do with the collapse of the British based Roman empire, when early vikings, fought alongside Scots/Caledonians and Irish/Hibernians in order to overthrow the British based Roman empire. The initial overthrow was successful, however ...


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