This is a very broad question. Firstly, the Middle Ages span ten centuries and the entire world (even if the question seems to be directed towards Europe). Secondly, battles between two Christian European kingdoms would have had a slightly different aftermath to battles between pagans and Christians, Muslims and Christians, or excommunicate Christians and ...
During the Soviet-Finnish Winter War, the Soviets attempted to outflank the Mannerheim Line by crossing the frozen Gulf of Finland in the south and Lake Ladoga in the north.
On February 10th and 11th, the Soviet flanking maneuvers in the Gulf of Finland were caught in the open by Finnish coastal artillery.
...the Russians [Soviets] tried for the first time ...
The model for "mercenary" armies in say, the 17th century, was that of Albrecht Wallenstein, not that of say, Johann Tilly.
Although he had and used mercenary troops, Tilly was a member of the "Establishment" who also had, and used "Imperial" (read "establishment") troops. On the other hand, Wallenstein was a "...
Although the provided image is a bit unclear, I believe that the inscription is the same as on another image which I gave a quick-and-dirty translation on /r/translator a while back. Here is the inscription in the question (left) and the one I saw before (right), side-by-side:
The characters mostly have shapes ...
Yes; frequently. Perhaps even as the norm, and certainly in every battle of annihilation (or nearly so) where one side had the option, but declined, of retreating prior to engagement.
Napoleon at Waterloo.
Caesar at Pharsalus.
Gaius Terentius Varro at Cannae.
Darius III at Guagamela.
Darius the Great at Marathon
Xerxes I at Salamis