97

There were several well-known attacks. Aleutian Islands Campaign On June 6, two days after the bombing of Dutch Harbor, 500 Japanese marines landed on Kiska, one of the Aleutian Islands of Alaska...The next day, a total of 1,140 Japanese infantrymen landed on Attu via Holtz Bay, eventually reaching Massacre Bay and Chichagof Harbor...The ...


46

Aluminium refining requires huge amounts of electricity so plants are often sited close to things like hydroelectric dams or abundant supplies of coal or natural gas. Bauxite (aluminium ore) needs to be refined by electrolysis so it is very good way to make use of surplus off-peak high output electrical power and the costs of shipping the ore to the plant ...


37

Catholic missionaries possessed a number of distinct advantages over the Protestants. First, they were well-trained, ordained priests, not merely well-meaning laymen, as many Protestants were. Unlike family men, they were free to travel about, to live among Indians, then among white settlers, then to move on again. They posed no threat of permanent ...


23

George A. Strieby gives an excellent answer of which I would like to expand on it a little. Most Jesuits missionaries shared in the daily life of the Indians, travelling with them as they moved from one encampment to the next. The two religious traditions took different approaches to evangelism. Catholics, such as the tireless Father Pierre-Jean De Smet ...


19

Japan had a lot of targets closer to home. They included Southeast Asia (which they conquered), China, and India (Japan came fairly close). They did attack American possessions on the far side of the Pacific such as Wake Island, Guam and the Philippines, plus Midway and the Aleutians, but otherwise, pretty much left mainland America alone after Pearl Harbor. ...


18

Aluminum manufacturing is very energy-intensive and requires large amounts of electricity, which the other comments have covered. Washington State and the Pacific Northwest has an abundance of inexpensive electricity due to the large-scale hydro-electric power projects installed from the 1930s through the 1970s. Examples include the Grand Coulee Dam, Chief ...


10

There is a fairly long account of Catholic and Protestant missionary activity to the Indians of Maine in Lord, R. H., Sexton, J. E., & Harrington, E. T. (1944). History of the Archdiocese of Boston In the Various Stages of Its Development 1604 to 1943, New York: Sheed & Ward. This history is in three volumes; as I recall, all accounts of missionary ...


8

A vast, isolated area was needed to produce plutonium because no one knew for sure how much damage the radiation it gave off might do. Abundant power for plutonium production and water to cool the heat that built up were also needed. What seemed like an ideal location existed in a barren corner of Benton County in Central Washington. Hanford was isolated—...


7

Japanese submarines did come to the American Pacific coast. I know of one bombardment while visiting Fort Stevens on vacation. The attack did no damage, but appears to have helped foster fears of further attacks. In the strategic sense, basically nothing happened on the American Pacific coast to change the course of the war, but one could argue that the ...


6

Range of their ships... The Japanese doctrine dictated a naval battle near the home islands, a repeat of the Russo-Japanese war. They did so largely because they lacked enough fuel to reliably reach, much less maintain any kind of battle fleet off the coast of the U.S. The major reason that a Japanese carrier attack on Pearl Harbor was of low probability ...


6

The idea for the Century 21 exposition originated from within Seattle itself. "A defining moment in the history of Seattle, this fair began life as the brainchild of City Councilman Al Rochester." (source) To quote some other relevant details from Wikipedia: The fair was originally conceived in 1955 to mark the 50th anniversary of the 1909 Alaska–...


5

Japan, like all major navies, had doctrines that were highly influenced by Mahon's book The Influence of Sea Power Upon History published in 1890, which emphasized the critical role of capital ships (battleships) in defensive roles in the home waters. The US Pacific Fleet was deployed forward, at Pearl Harbor, in an position to conduct offensive operations ...


4

[Homer T. Bone] finally won his state House seat in 1922 as a Farmer-Labor candidate, though his district was strongly conservative. He immediately submitted the "Bone Bill," which would give municipal electrical utilities -- such as Seattle’s and Tacoma’s -- the power to sell their service beyond the city limits. The two-month session, one of the stormier ...


4

The following map - somewhat ironically - was recently granted the prestigious Grand Award of Japan for design. As you can see, the distance between Japan and the United States is quite large. Another geographic feature that simply dealt a better hand to the Americans in WWII was island placement. Hawaii, being somewhat halfway in between the U.S. and ...


4

I've been in excavation for 30 years...all that to say...I love "Man and Machine" and I have paid close attention to some of the logistical side of man-made machines. I believe the "hit and run" sub attacks created good psychological fear along with the balloon bombs. But to amass a fleet of ships to actually sail the distance to American coast lines would ...


3

Another bombing of the Continental US by Japan that was not mentioned yet was the Japanese bombing of Oregon via submarine-launched bomber planes. The Lookout Air Raids are bombings that were carried out by the Japanese Navy against the American mainland by using incendiary bombs to start forest fires and therefore divert American resources to fighting ...


3

Why didn’t the Japanese attempt even a single attack on the mainland? What deterred them from striking such a direct blow on America? A submarine attack would have been easy for them, but they never sent a known submarine beyond the territorial waters of Hawaii. In addition to the other answers, I'll mention the I-400 class submarine. They were under water ...


3

Another attack I don't see mentioned here yet was on the SS Montebello off the Central California coast near Cambria. From Wikipedia: SS Montebello was an oil tanker sunk by the Japanese submarine, I-21, off the coast of California on December 23, 1941. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SS_Montebello


3

I haven't been able to find anything written by Abraham Lincoln himself explicitly explaining his reasons for declining the position of Governor of the Territory of Oregon in September 1849. The surviving correspondence might suggest several reasons, and in particular at least one contemporary seems to say that he may have felt embarrassed to take such a ...


2

It seems that the legal "age of majority" in Washington state was 21 from 1854 until 1971, when it was amended by House Bill No. 309 and became 18. There are different definitions of the term "age of majority". In this case, the "age of majority" is defined in the bill as follows: ... all persons shall be deemed and taken to be of full age for all ...


2

Oregon was too far away. It meant that his wife Mary would have to leave her friends in Illinois, (and elsewhere in the Midwest and the South). Also, Lincoln's political connections were there, which meant that he would have had to start fresh in 1849 in a strange and distant territory. Born in 1809, he was then about 40 years old, too old for most people ...


2

We must never forget that Germany and Japan, the Axis powers, were also developing nuclear weapons in WW2, but before the Axis could finish development and deploy their nuclear weapons or dirty bombs, the Allies won the war. The German submarine U-234 was delivering nuclear materials from Germany to Japan when Germany surrendered. That German submarine was ...


2

This spurt of aluminum production in Washington had nothing to do with aluminum deposits. Rather, this was brought about by to dramatic changes—the beginning of World War II, and the opening of several large dams in Washington State. The abundance of hydroelectric power from recently built large dams (like the famous Grand Coulee Dam, the largest in the ...


2

The main reason for the confiscation of Nihonmachi was that Japantown was close to major transportation centers—relatively close to the waterfront along Elliott Bay, and just a few blocks east of the railroad depot. Another (minor) reason is that the buildings in Nihonmachi tended to be more dilapidated than those in the rest of Seattle. Also, more ...


1

Washington State is the home of the Columbia River, and its tributary, the Snake River. The Columbia River is "only" the fourth longest river in the U.S., but it traverses the hilliest terrain. As such, it is the most suitable for building dams to generate hydroelectric power. As another poster points out, hydroelectric power is more necessary to the ...


1

Yes, this bill sure did have something to do with power production. Homer T. Bone, once a Socialist, a Republican, and a member of several minor parties, was a Tacoma lawyer and a longtime advocate of public power; that is, power companies owned by the government rather than private investors. As a young member of the Washington House of Representatives in ...


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