37

A real "Gold mark" it is not. Real leather it is, originally intended for shoe soles. This is Notgeld or Ersatz-money, issued after the Great War during the period known as hyperinflation and was one of the last tries to combat the consequences of inflation on a local level. Although most of these were printed on fancy papers, intended for local ...


16

The difficulty is that, by a suitably chosen narrow meaning of defeat: Destruction of the army in the field, loss of all conquered territory, or significant loss of hoe country areas, the German Army wasn't defeated. Here is a map that shows the Allied March to the Rhine after the Armistice; which thus shows that on Nov 11, 1918, the Germans still held all ...


16

This is partially really almost answered within the question: The lay judges were supporters of Hitler… But the whole affair is at the same time really strange and blatantly obvious, in retrospect. Despite being the most high profile defendant, Ludendorff was still so immensely popular that his role was almost edited out completely before the process ...


14

To be frank, it seems the author has no clue. [...], he didn't have friends or relatives in high places, [...] He was in the Beer Hall Putsch which was promoted by Erich Ludendorff, the former German General of World War I and idolized as "the brain of the war". While not leading anymore, Ludendorff had tremendous connections and support. His influence was ...


10

Yes, of course. The SA was used to terrorize political opponents; they originated from right-wing paramilitary groups that were abundant in Germany after the first world war. (The peace treaty limited the German army to a certain number (100000 soldiers); the German imperial army in the first world war was much larger and many units resented both the peace ...


9

Was the official name of the country the Weimar Republic No. The official name was "Deutsches Reich", or "German Empire". did people (both inside the borders, and outside) at the time it existed call those lands 'Weimar Republic'? It seems not. Or, at least, not in any significant numbers. According to the Wikipedia page on the Weimar Republic: "......


9

Possibly. There is a mention here of "a formal Reichstag commission of enquiry . . . held by the Weimar government." The commission criticized some aspects of the stab in the back theory, but not all of it: The expression ‘stab-in-the-back’ in the oft-used sense, as if the country had attacked the victorious army in the rear and as if the war had been ...


9

I found a hit in http://www.documentarchiv.de/fs/ns_abkuerzungen.html: Ic Offizier für Feindnachrichten (English: Officer for enemy messages). There are some other websites with similar information. The German Wikipedia has an article https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dritter_Generalstabsoffizier: Der Dritte Generalstabsoffizier oder Ic war in höheren ...


7

The Reichstag Fire Decree of February 28, 1933, enabled extreme measures, including incarceration without trial, for members of the KPD. In preparation for voting on the Enabling Act: The Reichstag, led by its President, Hermann Göring, changed its rules of procedure to make it easier to pass the bill. .... Göring reduced the quorum to 378 by not counting ...


7

The two sub-organisations calling for that 1932 Berlin transport strike were the NSBO (Nationalsozialistische Betriebszellenorganisation) for the Nazis and the RGO (Revolutionäre Gewerkschafts-Opposition) for the KPD. But the RGO started the strike and then the nazis quickly joined in. The RGO welcomed that move as in her eyes this was an imminent precursor ...


6

Most other currencies were on the gold standard. Banknotes are typically "a promise to pay" to whomever holds it. The German banks were not flush: their books were loaded with red ink. Whence the red ink? Their credit was no good. The Kaiser had funded the war on credit, so Germany was already deep in debt. Unfortunately for them, losing the war meant ...


6

I assume you are not interested in fairly common cases of a new country becoming independent and the old country recognising that. An example might be section 2 of the Canada Act 1982 passed by the UK parliament at the request of the Canadian government, which said No Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom passed after the Constitution Act, 1982 ...


6

The Sturmabteilung (SA) played a key role in Hitler's 1923 Beer Hall Putsch in Munich, which was an illegal act of treason. Hitler was sentenced to five years in prison for his role, but served only nine months. After the "Putsch," the SA engaged in "street fights" with toughs from the left wing parties. Their activities grew more extensive after 1929 as ...


5

There's a decent glossary of German military terms here. The 1a is the operations officer on a staff, the 1b is the supply officer and the 1c is the intelligence officer. Those terms had been in use in the German Army for a long time, and had acquired some life of their own. In an organisation like the SS of the early 1930s, where everyone had served in ...


5

Foreign countries didn't think the Beer Hall Putsch was significant at the time. It is only significant in retrospect: we know it's important because we know that Hitler would become leader of Germany 10 years later. They didn't know that. Their assessment was not wrong, because it was not (yet) inevitable or even likely that Hitler would gain power. His ...


4

The Term Nazi, referring to the NSDAP originated alluding to the existing derogatory definition by political opponents of the National Socialists the German Labor movement. As you say around 1924 from the The Third Reich Sourcebook. The first use of the term "Nazi" by a NSDAP member to refer to the NSDAP was during an abortive attempt to reclaim the word ...


4

First of all, it is very important to notice that the situation in both Province of Upper Silesia within Prussia/Germany and The Voivodship of Silesia within Poland was extremely tense, due to the plebiscite and the 3 polish insurrections. It is absolutely impossible to find a contemporary source which is not extremely biased toward either Germany or Poland, ...


2

This is more than true. "The government" was to blame for this, entirely. It is "the government", as members, coalitions etc changed, but it had decisive influence on proceedings as we know it. "Stabbed in the back" was propagated by the very institutions of the Weimar government itself – and several of its members. In a sense, there was such a 'back-...


2

I've found one contemporary source in the university library but it seems to be extremely biased. It's a slim 30-pages brochure called "The Poles in Germany and the Germans in Poland" by one George Kurnatowski, a political science professor from Warsaw, published in 1927. Prof. Kurnatowski is strenuosly trying to show that the Poles in Germany are ...


2

The number of foreigners, broken down by nationality, was recorded in the 1925 and 1933 censuses. Technically, the 1933 census falls just after the fall of the Weimar Republic, being taken in December 1933, but still comes within your timeframe. A further census was taken in 1939, although that also included the territories of Austria, Sudetenland and ...


2

During the Weimar Republic the society in Germany was extremly divided. So there were also quite a lot of political murders and actual firefights between right and left wingers. I think this should also be taken in account. In German, an article about political murders mainly in Bavaria, where quit a few politians got murdered. Then there was for example ...


2

Q … how much of it is based on actual events? …is quite a broad inquiry. This answer concentrates solely on the two concrete events depicted, as OP said, "these are ones I am curious about", which seems answerable. The phosgene subplot – as such – is plausible. Planning for the next war started before World War I was over. Just like with tanks and ...


2

Any act of intervention, by either the League of Nations or any alliance of individual countries, would have been a declaration of War against the Weimar Republic, both de facto and de jure. That is the nature of international intervention. Article X of the Covenant of the League of Nations would have allowed the Weimar Republic to invoke self-defence ...


1

It did not save Weimar Republic, it just erased people's savings Before the war, German mark was on gold standard. This means that you could exchange your paper banknotes for gold at fixed price (fixed exchange ratio), therefore banknotes were "as good as gold" and were used for savings as more practical and only legal tender. Now, war cost money, and ...


1

You might want to take a look at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hyperinflation_in_the_Weimar_Republic#Stabilization and the references there (one of them, "The Rentenmark Miracle," has an outdated URL - the correct one is http://www.economia.puc-rio.br/gfranco/Ch10.PDF). In short, it wasn't just redenomination, it was (among other things) that a new currency ...


1

In fact, that is exactly what they did. On 20 November 1923, Germany ended inflation by pegging the mark’s foreign exchange value at its prevailing value of 4,200 billion marks to the dollar. (Hetzel 2002, p. 8) This worked fine as far as hyperinflation was concerned, but it was too little and too late to reverse the larger political and economic crisis. ...


1

The State Treaty for the Re-establishment of an Independent and Democratic Austria (Vienna, 15 May 1955) contains the following articles: Part I: - Political and Territorial Clauses Article 3 Recognition by Germany of Austrian Independence The Allied and Associated Powers will incorporate in the German Peace Treaty provisions for securing ...


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