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93

Strange at it may seem, there was a movement called "anti-suffragism" in the U.S. and U.K. composed mainly of women. Their numbers were small, since this posture would have been "counterintuitive." The Americans were composed mainly of "conservative" women who liked the division of duties and society between "domestic" (for women), and "outside," for men. ...


83

Yes, there were. And at the beginning of the women's suffrage movement, suffragettes were viewed by most women as oddities rather than heroic liberators. Basically, centuries ago, due to the technological and economical environment, the family as a unit was much more important than how many people view it today. It was close to impossible to survive (and ...


77

Art does not exist in a vacuum, but is rather only one part of the historical record. Just as people comment on our modern standard of beauty today, so does early modern writers on theirs. Fortunately, Baroque art dates from a recent enough period that the historical record is extensive. For example, a 17th century commentary on a Van Dyck portrait of a ...


73

You're not the first person to ask this question. It's obviously not possible to know exactly how any election would have gone in things were different, but we have enough demographic polling data to make educated guesses. FiveThirtyEight has done extensive analyses on what voting maps would look like if only specific demographics voted. In this most ...


70

I find this an unsatisfactory answer but perhaps it will provoke someone to make a better one along similar lines. In the 2012 US presidential election, men voted (according to exit polls) 52:45 in favour of Romney over Obama, compared with the overall result of 51:47 in favour of Obama. So if we assume the exit polls give a perfectly accurate indication of ...


62

SHORT ANSWER In antiquity, the Scythians (Eurasian nomads) and the Sarmatians (nomads of Iranian origin who moved westwards, gradually overwhelming the Scythians) had significant numbers of female warriors. Estimates based on archaeological discoveries range from 15% to over 30% of women who were warriors. The precise role of these fighters remains unclear, ...


61

In Antiquities of the Jews, the ancient historian Josephus reported an incident where the Emperor Tiberius explicitly ordered a woman to be crucified: Mundus had a freedwoman, who had been made free by his father, whose name was Ide, one skillful in all sorts of mischief ... Tiberius inquired into the matter thoroughly by examining the priests about it, ...


46

She wasn't technically knighted insofar as I'm aware of, but Joan of Arc springs to mind. She played a decisive role in ending the Hundred Years' War. Cursory googling yields a few more female warriors here, but only Joan of Arc is from the European middle ages, and this Quora question on the same topic with a few more examples. One of the Quora answers ...


29

Not only were there women who opposed suffrage, there still are. For instance, here's Central Missisippi Tea Party President Janis Lane in 2012: I'm really going to set you back here. Probably the biggest turn we ever made was when the women got the right to vote. [...] Our country might have been better off if it was still just men voting. There is ...


28

Depending on OP's interpretation of "knighthood" and how loose the answer can be: Scaly Llama - My favorite source on the topic. British History Podcast - I highly recommend this discussion of Aethefladd (I think episodes 270 through about 280 touch on the subject). BHP covers a number of high ranking commanders who happen to have been female, but my ...


28

The excellent answer above by Lars Bosteen details a significant exception to the case outlined below. Perhaps additional exceptional instances remain to be uncovered in the historical and archaeological records. Let's start by parsing the question actually asked; rather than imagining a different question that might appeal. Is there any evidence of ...


26

In the 1933 Spanish general election women were enfranchised by the first time, and the right won the election - while in the previous 1931 election the left had won. One of the cited causes of that victory of the right was that women were more influenced by the Church than men, so they tended to follow more their priest's advice and vote for conservative ...


25

A Spanish example: Victoria Kent. Quote from the link: Kent was against giving women the right to vote immediately, arguing that, as Spanish women lacked at that moment social and political education enough to vote responsibly, they would be very much influenced by the Catholic priests, damaging left wing parties.


25

A lot of the paintings were commissioned as portraits, why would people pay for themselves to be depicted in an ugly way? Wealth nowadays is associated with a slim, tanned, and shaped body because those are traits of people who have enough free time, and money to achieve it. In that period, it would be the reverse, being more on the fat side would require ...


25

[What] was a waitress called in the Middle Ages? In Europe, they didn't exist as a recognized occupation. And is there a different name for the ones who did this kind of job inside a castle, in contrast to the women doing this kind of job in, for example, a tavern? At a castle, the servants in the great hall would simply be servants (pre-Conquest, þrǣl,...


24

ZIP codes were introduced in 1963, and ZIP is an acronym for "Zone Improvement Plan." ZIP codes were to be an improvement on "postal zones". Thus before ZIP codes existed one would write: John Xmith3001 Zarthan Avenue Minneapolis 16, Minnesota The number 16 was the zone number; this address was in postal zone 16 within the city of Minneapolis. This number ...


24

From the top of my head, I remember the word wench, which originally meant girl, then a servant, and later also a prostitute, which is likely why it went out of use for waitresses. Here’s a somewhat confirming article from 1988. (If link is blocked for you, use Wayback Machine copy.) It describes the job of a wench at Medieval Times, a “dinner theater” ...


22

Extracts from Kayla Theresa Natrella's Witchcraft and Women: A Historiography of Witchcraft as Gender History mentioned in rougon's answer: Main claims: Jules Michelet: sorceresses filled the role of midwives in every country, and were the only healers for women, because no woman in that period would have consulted or trusted a male physician ...


21

The short answer is he didn't, not really. By "participated more actively", your source likely just means socialisation, rather than women's rights or activity in general society. To be sure, some of his policies had a positive impact on the welfare of women, but that is more incidental than intentional. Basically, it is a bit of a stretch to describe his ...


19

In the UK women played an extremely important, and also extremely undervalued, role in the air war as pilots of the ATA - Air Transport Auxiliary. The ATA was a civilian formation whose purpose was to ferry new, repaired and even damaged aircraft to and from airfields across the UK to every destination (including front line airfields, factories and scrap ...


17

Concepts of prosecuting a people’s gender war for matriarchy are modern (post-Enlightenment) fantasies or farces of the reversal of modern gender roles. Correspondingly feminism and rights are both also modern social relationships. Medieval women did seek to change their position in the social system. Amongst the second estate nunneries were not simply ...


16

Until now, British law has given priority to male over female heirs of kings. But where there were no male heirs, a girl got the nod. For instance, King Henry VIII had three (surviving, legitimate) children; Edward (the youngest), Mary, and Elizabeth. Edward, the boy, was crowned king ahead of his two older sisters. He died in adolescence (without children),...


14

Post #6 in this thread discusses the possibility of high female gestapo agents. Apparently there isn't any evidence for them. They did find this link which proves the existence of at least one female Gestapo, but it isn't clear what her rank was.


14

Information on how slaves were treated in the 1,000 or so city states other than Athens is thin on the ground; for most of these city states we know next to nothing about them so comparisons between Athens and other cities are very difficult. Further, much of what we do know (even about slaves in Athens where are sources are far better than elsewhere) comes ...


13

In Switzerland, it had to pass a popular referendum. (Switzerland also joined the UN and legalized abortion only in 2002 — both decisions that were passed through referendum.) Similarly in Liechtenstein, 1984, where the 4th referendum in 16 years only narrowly passed despite support from newspapers and both major political parties. Passing a popular ...


13

Britain's order of succession is determined by male-preference cognatic primogeniture (in the future it will be equal primogeniture). This allows a female to ascend the throne as queen regnant (queen in her own right, as opposed to being a consort to a king). Queens Elizabeth I & II and Queen Victoria are example of such queens. In their cases, there is ...


13

The perception that the Celts were promiscuous seems to be based on, at least in part, ancient writers’ interpretations of marital relationships and / or a superficial knowledge of Celtic customs and culture. On the latter point, Strabo admits to lacking evidence according to David Rankin in Celts and the Classical World, ... Strabo who says that ...


13

Q How do we know baroque art depicted obese ladies because of a different ideal of beauty? Do we really? We don't. The anthropological constant to be observed is: "women are considered 'attractive' if: young and healthy" (both more or less relating to fecundity; Whether socio-biological, evolutionary, or just cynical): Differences in the historical record ...


13

Quite the opposite, he's arguing that "savage" societies give women higher status (from our modern point of view). I think its important to understand that this was written by a man who benefitted from sitting comfortably in the upper rungs of Victorian (technically actually Georgian) English society. He's not talking about modern western women with (on ...


12

You can't exactly qualify what 'role' women played. Was it decisive? Not when it came to the air war. The majority of women pilots, navigators, armorers, mechanics, etc., can be found on the Eastern Front. Three women's air regiments were set up by the Soviet high command, which included fighters, night bombers (nicknamed by the Germans Night Witches), ...


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