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77

Art does not exist in a vacuum, but is rather only one part of the historical record. Just as people comment on our modern standard of beauty today, so does early modern writers on theirs. Fortunately, Baroque art dates from a recent enough period that the historical record is extensive. For example, a 17th century commentary on a Van Dyck portrait of a ...


73

You're not the first person to ask this question. It's obviously not possible to know exactly how any election would have gone in things were different, but we have enough demographic polling data to make educated guesses. FiveThirtyEight has done extensive analyses on what voting maps would look like if only specific demographics voted. In this most ...


70

I find this an unsatisfactory answer but perhaps it will provoke someone to make a better one along similar lines. In the 2012 US presidential election, men voted (according to exit polls) 52:45 in favour of Romney over Obama, compared with the overall result of 51:47 in favour of Obama. So if we assume the exit polls give a perfectly accurate indication of ...


25

A lot of the paintings were commissioned as portraits, why would people pay for themselves to be depicted in an ugly way? Wealth nowadays is associated with a slim, tanned, and shaped body because those are traits of people who have enough free time, and money to achieve it. In that period, it would be the reverse, being more on the fat side would require ...


25

[What] was a waitress called in the Middle Ages? In Europe, they didn't exist as a recognized occupation. And is there a different name for the ones who did this kind of job inside a castle, in contrast to the women doing this kind of job in, for example, a tavern? At a castle, the servants in the great hall would simply be servants (pre-Conquest, þrǣl,...


24

From the top of my head, I remember the word wench, which originally meant girl, then a servant, and later also a prostitute, which is likely why it went out of use for waitresses. Here’s a somewhat confirming article from 1988. (If link is blocked for you, use Wayback Machine copy.) It describes the job of a wench at Medieval Times, a “dinner theater” ...


17

Concepts of prosecuting a people’s gender war for matriarchy are modern (post-Enlightenment) fantasies or farces of the reversal of modern gender roles. Correspondingly feminism and rights are both also modern social relationships. Medieval women did seek to change their position in the social system. Amongst the second estate nunneries were not simply ...


13

Quite the opposite, he's arguing that "savage" societies give women higher status (from our modern point of view). I think its important to understand that this was written by a man who benefitted from sitting comfortably in the upper rungs of Victorian (technically actually Georgian) English society. He's not talking about modern western women with (on ...


13

Q How do we know baroque art depicted obese ladies because of a different ideal of beauty? Do we really? We don't. The anthropological constant to be observed is: "women are considered 'attractive' if: young and healthy" (both more or less relating to fecundity; Whether socio-biological, evolutionary, or just cynical): Differences in the historical record ...


10

Iran and Saudi Arabia are both majority Muslim nations in western Asia, with a lot of their external revenue coming from oil extraction. But that's about where the resemblance ends. Iran is largely Shia' in religion, and the vast majority of its population speak Indo-European (Mostly Indo-Iranian) languages. Only about 3% of its population is Arab. Their ...


10

SHORT ANSWERS The Presence of Noble Ladies: The First Crusade included a large number of pilgrims, many of whom were women (including female relatives of nobles). Concerning their presence at the battle itself, there was no nearby safe refuge when the Turks attacked. Rape over Death: The church's view was that victims of rape in war did not have to do ...


9

Looks like it may match Felsted Schools symbol. Wikipedia entry here. There seems to be indications of earlier Felsted schools which did have women or girls in attendance. Felsted house had a practising School which had 90 girls attending. Practising Schools Two immediately opposite the college One for 90 girls and one for 120 infants Both reported ...


7

Moving away from some of the more obvious examples which are easily googled (and focusing on Africa, which gets far too little attention on History SE), consider Queen Amina of the Hausa state of Zazzau (in what is now northern Nigeria). Information on her comes mostly (but not exclusively) from the Kano chronicle. Leaving aside more legendary accounts, ...


7

If the question is What's the most ancient known example of a woman challenging feminine gender roles? then I understand that to mean mainly a real woman doing the 'challenging'. And of course within a society that first developed an increasingly patriarchical system in the first place. A more egalitarian hunter-gatherer community has not that much need ...


5

I might suggest the election of Susanna Madora Salter as mayor of Argonia, Kansas, in 1887. From the Kansas Historical Society page on her: First woman mayor in the U.S... Soon after Kansas women gained the right to vote in municipal elections, voters elected (Salter)... (She was) Nominated on the Prohibition Party ticket by several Argonia men ...


5

Gender inequality is a completely unproven concept. It's more a modern fantasy, not much different from how the Victorians looked at the middle ages ('Ivanhoe'). Very much like walking along the buffet and picking things you like, and ignoring the things that don't confirm the concept. Until about a century ago most of both men and women led a tough life. ...


4

Aetheflaed comes to mind if for no other reason than that she militarized bees. Æthelred died in 911 and Æthelflæd then ruled Mercia as Lady of the Mercians. The accession of a female ruler in Mercia is described by the historian Ian Walker as "one of the most unique events in early medieval history". Alfred had built a network of fortified burhs and ...


3

This aesthetic relativism is also confused by the fact that for most of the history of Western art, women weren't able to model so the artist often just changed male bodies (from his/her model) into female bodies by adding breasts or extra fat or whatever. Here's a source: https://renresearch.wordpress.com/2011/02/11/men-with-breasts-or-why-are-...


3

A student that cannot binge drink? Never! Also from Treitschke. Used to dismiss Hildegard Wegscheider when she wanted to listen to his lectures. The above quote in the question is recorded in the memoirs of Helene Stöcker, who shared a similar fate asking permission to be a visiting reader to his lectures. In Prussia the women's desire for higher ...


3

No, it was not possible Equality in this world was a concept completely alien to Middle Ages. In those times people were sharply divided between social strata (monarchs, nobility, clergy, peasants, city dwellers etc ...) There was very little chance for social mobility (for example for peasant to became noble) . Society was held together by religion which ...


3

Looking through the list linked by Marakai in the comments, the best match appears to be Shang general Fu Hao. Her biography indicates she commanded several campaigns victoriously, successfully conquering several neighbours of the Shang dynasty, and was the most powerful general of her time. Comparatively, the other people listed either didn't command, didn'...


2

There was a Persian satrap called Mania. She became satrap in 399 BC. Polyaenus says in Strategems Mania, the wife of Zenis prince of Dardanus, governed the realm after the death of her husband, with the assistance of Pharnabazus. She always went to battle, drawn in a chariot; she gave her orders at the time of action, formed her lines, and rewarded ...


2

The question does not specify the language, so... at least to refute the highly accepted answer there were no such establishments in the Middle Ages. Old Czech word hospoda or hostinicě - German Obdach, Herberge, Wirtshaus - Latin hospitium - inn, pub šenk, krčma - German Schenke, Wirtshaus - Latin caupona - rather a place to drink than to sleep for the ...


1

Echoing the sentiment in my earlier comment, hospitals were chiefly a venue where the poor would go until the mid-century, and births occurred at home with ad hoc midwives otherwise. The story behind hand washing before childbirth (an interesting read in its own right) elaborates on the reasons why hospitals attracted the poor: Maternity institutions ...


1

Here is a list, non exhaustive: Queen Cleopatra: not a great military commander, but a famous at the battle of Actium Queen Bouddica: in Britanny, she fought the Roman Empire In Sicily, when the Normans hold it: Sykelgaite of Salerne and Adelaïde of Montferrat, fighting multiple nobles Rani Lakshmi Bai in the 19th century, against the British in India Ching ...


1

It might be a bit too simplified to attribute the Iranian revolution to just one man and his ideas. He's now dead, by the way. Many forces contributed to how the Islamic revolution unfolded and how policies, also towards women changed compared to the Shah era. It is simply untrue that the sixties and seventies were a haven for unopressed men and women and ...


1

One example of a female character challenging hypocrisy in gender roles would be Calypso's speech (Odyssey, book 5). When Hermes was sent to tell her to set Odysseus free, she comments on how goddesses are not allowed to have mortal lovers (while the male gods had affairs with mortal women freely). So he spoke, and Calypso, the beautiful goddess, ...


1

Wyoming granted women the vote in order to have enough voters to qualify for statehood; women's suffrage decided that election.


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