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25

[What] was a waitress called in the Middle Ages? In Europe, they didn't exist as a recognized occupation. And is there a different name for the ones who did this kind of job inside a castle, in contrast to the women doing this kind of job in, for example, a tavern? At a castle, the servants in the great hall would simply be servants (pre-Conquest, þrǣl,...


24

From the top of my head, I remember the word wench, which originally meant girl, then a servant, and later also a prostitute, which is likely why it went out of use for waitresses. Here’s a somewhat confirming article from 1988. (If link is blocked for you, use Wayback Machine copy.) It describes the job of a wench at Medieval Times, a “dinner theater” ...


10

SHORT ANSWERS The Presence of Noble Ladies: The First Crusade included a large number of pilgrims, many of whom were women (including female relatives of nobles). Concerning their presence at the battle itself, there was no nearby safe refuge when the Turks attacked. Rape over Death: The church's view was that victims of rape in war did not have to do ...


10

Iran and Saudi Arabia are both majority Muslim nations in western Asia, with a lot of their external revenue coming from oil extraction. But that's about where the resemblance ends. Iran is largely Shia' in religion, and the vast majority of its population speak Indo-European (Mostly Indo-Iranian) languages. Only about 3% of its population is Arab. Their ...


9

Looks like it may match Felsted Schools symbol. Wikipedia entry here. There seems to be indications of earlier Felsted schools which did have women or girls in attendance. Felsted house had a practising School which had 90 girls attending. Practising Schools Two immediately opposite the college One for 90 girls and one for 120 infants Both reported ...


7

Moving away from some of the more obvious examples which are easily googled (and focusing on Africa, which gets far too little attention on History SE), consider Queen Amina of the Hausa state of Zazzau (in what is now northern Nigeria). Information on her comes mostly (but not exclusively) from the Kano chronicle. Leaving aside more legendary accounts, ...


7

I believe that honour belongs to Julia Drusilla, the sister of the emperor Gaius (commonly known as Caligula). As explained in A Companion to Women in the Ancient World by Sharon L. James, and Sheila Dillon, Members of the imperial family began to receive worship, especially in the Greek East, from the time of Augustus, but the first woman to be deified ...


7

While probably not representative of the "average" woman, there is recorded the view of a very remarkable woman named Aspasia, who lived during Greece's Golden Age. While a young woman, Aspasia immigrated with her aristocratic family to Athens from the Greek city of Miletus, now part of Turkey. She was married to Pericles and was famous for her intelligence, ...


4

Aetheflaed comes to mind if for no other reason than that she militarized bees. Æthelred died in 911 and Æthelflæd then ruled Mercia as Lady of the Mercians. The accession of a female ruler in Mercia is described by the historian Ian Walker as "one of the most unique events in early medieval history". Alfred had built a network of fortified burhs and ...


3

No, it was not possible Equality in this world was a concept completely alien to Middle Ages. In those times people were sharply divided between social strata (monarchs, nobility, clergy, peasants, city dwellers etc ...) There was very little chance for social mobility (for example for peasant to became noble) . Society was held together by religion which ...


3

Looking through the list linked by Marakai in the comments, the best match appears to be Shang general Fu Hao. Her biography indicates she commanded several campaigns victoriously, successfully conquering several neighbours of the Shang dynasty, and was the most powerful general of her time. Comparatively, the other people listed either didn't command, didn'...


2

There was a Persian satrap called Mania. She became satrap in 399 BC. Polyaenus says in Strategems Mania, the wife of Zenis prince of Dardanus, governed the realm after the death of her husband, with the assistance of Pharnabazus. She always went to battle, drawn in a chariot; she gave her orders at the time of action, formed her lines, and rewarded ...


2

The question does not specify the language, so... at least to refute the highly accepted answer there were no such establishments in the Middle Ages. Old Czech word hospoda or hostinicě - German Obdach, Herberge, Wirtshaus - Latin hospitium - inn, pub šenk, krčma - German Schenke, Wirtshaus - Latin caupona - rather a place to drink than to sleep for the ...


1

Echoing the sentiment in my earlier comment, hospitals were chiefly a venue where the poor would go until the mid-century, and births occurred at home with ad hoc midwives otherwise. The story behind hand washing before childbirth (an interesting read in its own right) elaborates on the reasons why hospitals attracted the poor: Maternity institutions ...


1

Here is a list, non exhaustive: Queen Cleopatra: not a great military commander, but a famous at the battle of Actium Queen Bouddica: in Britanny, she fought the Roman Empire In Sicily, when the Normans hold it: Sykelgaite of Salerne and Adelaïde of Montferrat, fighting multiple nobles Rani Lakshmi Bai in the 19th century, against the British in India Ching ...


1

It might be a bit too simplified to attribute the Iranian revolution to just one man and his ideas. He's now dead, by the way. Many forces contributed to how the Islamic revolution unfolded and how policies, also towards women changed compared to the Shah era. It is simply untrue that the sixties and seventies were a haven for unopressed men and women and ...


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