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How close was the Soviet Union to collapsing during WW2? Short Answer Operation Barbarossa was code name for the German invasion of the Soviet Union which was the largest military offensive in the history of warfare. From June to Dec of 1941 it claimed the lives of 5 million Soviet Soldiers or about 10 times as many lives as America lost ...


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The suicide order is a MYTH - only one writer, David Bergamini - widely discredited - has tried to seriously put forward this idea. Scholarly consensus is that this never happened.


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Acknowledging the other answers which have indicated that there is no way of really knowing how close the Soviet Union came to collapsing during the Second World War, mainly because there is no way of knowing what might have been the key or critical variables that would have brought about a collapse with any certainty. Nevertheless, both the Axis and Allied ...


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That is indeed quite probably the case. Fritz Jacob Haber was for example Half brother of Elsbeth (Else) Caroline Freyhahn; Helene Weigert and Frieda Glücksmann While Frieda Glücksmann died in Jerusalem 1946, her daughter Hilda Hildegard Kuttner (Glücksmann) died March 02, 1943 (38), Oświęcim (Auschwitz) And on Yad Vashem this is confirmed. The ...


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It looks like you’re trying a theoretical comparison of fascisms using a theory of fascism where both Germany and Italy are considered fascist. You ought to consider nationalist revanchevist movements of radical extra parliamentary national renewal generally. Across movements like Salazar’s, Horthy’s, Franco’s or Pinochet anti-semitism is not an essential ...


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While armed merchantmen weren't particularly effective at actually fighting U-Boats, the mere act of arming them had a tactical and strategic effect. The Battle of the Atlantic could be won by hampering U-Boat attacks as much as sinking U-Boats. U-Boats are not really submarines, they're submersibles; they spend most of the time on the surface. Underwater ...


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This is something which have to do with the differences in ideology between the different totalitarianisms: fascism, nationalsocialism and stalinism. It is nationalism on steroids with access to the methods and tools of an industrialized country/economy but with different reason and criteria for differentiating (or not) between groups in its own population. ...


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In practice, however, the concept of a retarding parachute went away very early in the employment of either a single launcher or a Y launcher . . . see https://maritime.org/doc/destroyer/depthprojector1/index.htm And https://maritime.org/doc/depthcharge6/index.htm and was not used, at least by the USN, in WWII. The ballistics of a launcher were pretty ...


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Question: What is the minimum safe speed when dropping depth charges? Short Answer: The Depth charge in WWI was the same design used to begin WWII, modifications made during the war to make them more effective would not have significantly changed the answer to your question. For Depth's as shallow as 40 feet, your answer is: Six Knots well below ...


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An interesting perspective on this question can be had from the book 'The First Summit: Roosevelt & Churchill at Placentia Bay, 1941' by Theodore A. Wilson (1991), which describes the lead-up and activities of the two national leaders and their key advisors as they formulated the Atlantic Charter in 1941. Much of the final work was conducted on board ...


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Ike had no combat experience, yet he was appointed Supreme Allied Commander? That smacks of politics, not of military qualifications. Patton was the best battlefield general that the allies had. If Patton had been appointed Supreme Allied Commander rather than Ike, we would have won the war within six months; instead, Patton was sidelined, and we ...


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The HMHS, (His Majesty's Hospital Ship) Paris was sunk by German bombing off Dunkirk 02/06/1940. The HMHS Maid of Kent was also bombed and sunk while leaving Dieppe Harbour on 21/05/1940


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Question: Were armed merchantmen effective against submarines? They were called Q-Ships short for Queen Ships armed Merchantmen which convoyed with the merchant fleets for protection. No they weren't very effective. The German's had 13, British employed 9, the United States beginning in January 20, 1942 outfitted 5 in the Atlantic and 1 in the ...


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About the factors for combat effectiveness: One of the major features of Free France forces, compared to American and British ones, was that they were able to fight in mountains. This is true for a great part of them, mostly coming from North African territories with local as well as metropolitan soldiers. This ability was of great use in North Africa and ...


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I suspect that, less than an absolute "solution" or match, the usefulness was in limiting U-boats' tactical options: deck guns. Early ww2 U-boats had guns and liked to use them - saved on torpedoes among other things. surface, rather than submerged stalking and attacking. U-boats, until the Schnorkels came along (too late to do much), ran on batteries ...


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Armed merchantmen could clearly deal with a submarine attacking by day, on surface. During the night, U-Boats surface attacks would include many submarines, and the capacity of numerous merchantmen to defend a convoy would clearly be about the tactical plot: Who would detect first? Detect before the launch of torpedoes? Meteorological conditions And in ...


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A History of World Societies contrasts Zbigniew Brzezinski (et al) (wikipedia on totalitarianism definition of totalitarianism with the classical authortarian conservative as a totalitarian dictator wants/demands/requires controlling the life of everyone in a country while a classical authortarian conservative (king) didn't have the ability and bureaucracy ...


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3 megatons. The Source I've seen quoted in several places is the one calculated by the Center for Arms Control and Non Proliferation given below. quotes: Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists The total blast power of World War II has been calculated as three megatons by the International Commission on Nuclear Non-Proliferation and Disarmament. . ...


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Hanford and Oak Ridge had one common advantage: easy access to a lot of electric power. Both places (especially Hanford) also had a lot of fairly clean cold water to serve as cooling water. Okey, the intent in the sites: Hanford was intended to be the plutonium metal producing site (later the Savannah river reactors was built too) including the piles and ...


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A good reference is The Making of the Atomic Bomb by Richard Rhodes. Note that America (the government) initiated the Manhattan Project to develop the bomb and, as one aspect, recruited the necessary scientists and engineers from across the country as well as from England and refugees from Germany. In turn, these scientists received all the support they ...


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In regards initiating the Manhattan Project, Einstein and Szilard were clearly critical. Without them the entire project would, at a minimum, undoubtedly have started significantly later in the war. Szilard was the first in the U.S. to recognize the potential of an atomic bomb, and Einstein's celebrity, both in signing the letter and subsequently leveraging ...


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From the Wikipedia on the Supermarine Spitfire: "On 3 June 1936, the Air Ministry placed an order for 310 aircraft, at a cost of £1,395,000.... In mid-1938, the first production Spitfire rolled off the assembly line and was flown by Jeffrey Quill on 15 May 1938, almost 24 months after the initial order. The final cost of the first 310 aircraft, ...


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Welcome to the Histor.SE There is an element to be taken into account when one interests in the resistance in Yugoslavia: The interaction of three forces. Despite -or because- of the putsch against Nazis in Yugoslavia, quickly followed by an invasion by the Axis, the Resistance got a very important base, but it was a fragmented base. It has as a ...


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The video description seems indeed misleading. The description for the Youtube video "Mussolini arrives in Germany after being liberated and being greeted by Hitler and other Nazi leaders." says: Former Italian Prime Minister Benito Mussolini arrives in Germany after his liberation on October 10, 1943 during World War II. A Nazi aircraft arrives and ...


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The simple way to have defeated Russia was got not mistreat the millions of people that wanted to fight for the Germans. This would have meant a small fraction of the partisans problem and millions of allies and people fighting for Germany against Stalin.The other way would be to have taken just 25% of German army in 1941 and taken North Africa, Middle East ...


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Because Nagumo's execution of the attack while a tactical victory, was a strategic missed opportunity. It did minimal damage to the primary strategic targets. Pearl Harbor resurrection: the warships that rose to fight again The target ship USS Utah, and the battleships USS Arizona and Oklahoma, were the only ships the Japanese left beyond repair. ...


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There is a strategic vision for the Japanese behaviour in China. This strategic reason is based on a few political/ideological reasons: Japan needs resources Japan first invasion of Mandchoukouo and Korea gave him resources but not enough The military incident at Marco Polo bridge was the breaking point of a strategy: This strategy consisted in capturing ...


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Yamamoto and Nagumo are 2 very different officers. Yamamoto is someone who is flexible and see things 2-3 steps ahead whereas Nagumo is someone who follows the doctrine and mission objective to the letter. He isn't someone who can be left alone to take the initiative or to further an advantage gained.


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The best defense is a good offense If we only defend, we lose the war ~ Kembai Shimata. This answer will not duplicate the resource analysis a couple of the others did, but approaches the question based on the strategic concept of the Japanese war effort from 1939 through about 1943/44 - after which point the noose had began to tighten, US unrestricted ...


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Question: Why didn't the Japanese develop air defenses after the bombing of Tokyo? Japan was a feudalistic agrarian state throughout WWII. They were massively outmatched technologically and economically. They had trouble feeding their population and taking care of the prisoners of war they captured(*), much less fight a war of attrition on ...


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Air defense is not a trivial matter Everything in war (and in life) costs resources like raw materials, industrial capacity, workforce and crews for the weapons, and perhaps most importantly the time. Japan never had abundance of these, especially in the late war period 1944-45. Let's look at some of the requirements for successful air defense. Anti-...


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With what? By the time Tokyo became a regular bombing target, Japan was fast running out of resources. Japan didn't prioritize air defense in their policy. Japanese battleships and carriers had less air defense and much less accurate air defense on board, compared to US vessels. The same goes for the army and Japanese air defense in general. The Doolittle ...


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In 2017, there was an actual release of the complete intelligent report (suppressed for 70 years) on Midway Island. The report was apparently the source for a newspaper article, which unwisely, was overly detailed in a Chicago Tribune story shortly after the Midway Island attack. To quote from the reference link: While they were in route, Adm. Chester W....


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Question: Were the Japanese aware of Desmond Doss's actions? I'm don't think we will ever know because the Japanese who took part in the Battle of Okinawa are all dead. Of the 96,000 Japanese defenders ( 76,000 Japanese soldiers, and 20,000 Okinawan conscripts ) Only 7,000 prisoners were taken. What we do know is Doss's actions which awarded him the ...


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The difference almost certainly lies in Civil Defence, aka "Air Raid Precautions". Germany and the UK were well-prepared for air raids, with warning systems, large numbers of air-raid shelters, organised fire and rescue services, and so on. For your example raids: Singapore (1941) had 61 dead, and more than 700 wounded according to the English-language ...


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The Trap set by the US Navy at Midway(June 4-7 1942) was Admiral Nimitz call. Although Commander in Chief, United States Fleet (COMINCH) Admiral Ernest King in Washington was in constant contact with Nimitz as he made this call. We know this because it was the Pacific Fleet's intelligence officer in charge of station HYPO, Joseph Rochefort under Nimitz, ...


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I have in my backpack my shiny new xmas present, Shattered Sword, by Parshall and Tully. It mostly covers the Japanese side of things, and I'm barely into it, but the forward by John Lundstrom (who was the recipient of the first and most profuse of the authors' acknowledgements) credits the aggressive deployment decisions at both Coral Sea and Midway fully ...


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Political pragmatism and some "creative history" Germans were not strongly interested in Balkans. Main German concern was to end Greco-Italian War and kick the British out of Southeastern Europe before German invasion of Soviet Union (soft underbelly of Europe) . To this end, they first tried to lure Yugoslavia (which they considered as Serb dominated) into ...


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Question: Why did the Nazis collaborate with the Ustaše? The Croats are linguistically, ethnically and culturally a Slavic people. While the Ustaše did not see themselves as such, why did the Nazis choose to collaborate with what was essentially a nationalist organisation for a Slavic ethnic group. This is an example of how illogical Hitler's brand ...


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The Nazis collaborated with the Soviets when it suited them to do it. So this isn't particularly surprising. Faced a serious menace in Tito's partisans, they needed to keep their subjects divided. Although political Catholicism was discouraged in Nazi Germany, it usually took the form of fascism in majority-Catholic countries. Collaborating with the Ustasha ...


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Question: After his (Hitler's) nervous breakdown during the battle of Berlin, Hitler realized that defeat was imminent and decided that surrendering in the West to save what was left of Germany from the Soviets was the right way to go about things. Hitler also seem to hint at him wanting someone else to negotiate a surrender with ...


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Wikipedia has the answer, but it requires some assembly Wikipedia: Leopold III contains the phrase, Leopold's controversial actions during the Second World War resulted in a political crisis known as the Royal Question. Royal Question is hyperlinked to another Wikipedia page, which explains, The "Question" at stake surrounded whether King Leopold ...


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By combining the three tables, of known Me262 losses; claims by USAAF; and claims by RAF, in Foreman, Me 262 Combat Diary (1990), assuming that the German numbers are correct, and also that all the dates are as stated, I have obtained the following statistics. In some cases both USAAF & RAF claim the same Me262, and in one case it is not clear which type ...


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One must assume that by April 19th, with: the German military reduced to conscripting 14 and 15 year old boys as soldiers; Soviet troops occupying all of Pomerania, most of Silesia, Slovakia and Hungary preparing an assault across the Oder-Neisse on Berlin; and Allied troops on the Elbe reducing isolated pockets of German troops in: the Dutch provinces of ...


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Ignoring Irving, there are other sources to the effect that Hitler realised somebody would have to carry out the end of the war on the German side. He seems to have wanted to avoid capture by the Soviets, and to avoid seeing the defeat of his ideas, hence his suicide and orders to burn his body. But that does not mean he didn't want to control events. His ...


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Skinner's work was pretty good, but in his analysis on why it was discarded he might be ignoring several factors outside of his area of expertise. First of all - while in his " Pigeons in Pelican" article Skinner states that no other guidance system existed for the bomb, in fact, Pelican already had two of them - televised and semi-active radar homing; ...


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In a 1960 article Pigeons in a Pelican, B. F. Skinner gave an account of his experiments, the problems he encountered and how they were overcome. The details are too lengthy to cite in full here, but his final demonstration (1944) before the project was rejected shows that - on an experimental level in a laboratory - the system showed promise. A later ...


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