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54

Here are six brothers, sons of Abdul Aziz (1902-53), who have been (and the most recent still is) Kings of Saudi Arabia: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/a3/House_of_Saud_rulers.svg/1024px-House_of_Saud_rulers.svg.png


37

Seven brothers Seven of the sons of Ismail Ibn Sharif of the Morocco Alaouite dynasty were monarchs. Ismail ruled from 1672 to 1727 and had 525 sons and 342 daughters according to Wikipedia (or 888 according to the Guiness Book of Records). Control changed hands many times. The ones who became Sultan were: Ahmad ruled 1727–1728, then 1728–1729 Abdul Malek ...


29

The simple answer is that often the people involved write down (or verbally pass on information that is later written down by other people) these 'private communications' after the event, in memoirs, journals, letters, etc. Also 'official' secrets don't have to permanently stay secret, especially if the original reason for keeping them secret no longer ...


17

Professor David Crystal has written a whole book on this, but it is possible to provide a reasonable answer without going to great lengths. First, though, it would help to define what a global language is. Why, for example, is English widely considered to be the global language when there are far more native speakers of Mandarin? Crystal, in English as a ...


15

The Jewish calendar is in year 5774 (between September of 2013 and October of 2014, it's a leap year), so the "Jewish civilization" is not in 2014. The state of Israel, which is really the only official body to recognize the Jewish calendar, determines all of its holidays and memorial days on the basis of the Jewsih calendar. However, all of the civil dates ...


15

According to Grey Wolf: U-Boat Crewman of World War II, the officers of a typical crew consisted of... Commander - a Kapitänleutnant or Oberleutnant First Officer - Oberleutnant zur See or Leutnant zur See Second Officer - Leutnant zur See Engineering Officer - Leutnant or Oberleutnant zur See Third Watch Officer - Held by a warrant officer, typically the ...


14

As I remember, the state of Texcoco in Mexico had several generations of sons succeeding fathers, and then several brothers succeeding brothers. The last long reigning ruler, Nezahulapilli reigned from 1472 to 1515. His son Cacamatzin (1483-1520) reigned from 1516 to 1520. He died during La Noche Triste during the Spanish conquest. His half-brother ...


14

Xenophon gave specific reasons for some of his works but for others he did not. Xenophon (about 431 BC to 354 BC) produced a very wide range of work during his lifetime: historical, biographical, philosophical, instructional. He never stated a primary purpose for all his works and we can deduce that some of what he wrote was aimed at specific audiences. ...


13

Where to start? Starting from the forced exchange of population between Greece and Turkey in 1923, you will find no shortage of examples, some of truly unbelievable scale. Among the most prominent ones are population transfer and Russian settlements in the former USSR (considering the brutality of the regime, I think it is beyond dispute that these satisfy ...


12

Scholars have noted that pre-agricultural societies often have more egalitarian gender norms than agricultural societies. This had led to theories that agriculture led to the development of inegalitarian gender norms, because it privileged men's body strength. A more refined version of thesis was first posited by Ester Boserup in "Woman's Role in Economic ...


12

In his momentous study L'origine des systèmes familiaux, Emmanuel Todd notes that, to the best of a rather sparse archival knowledge, first, the status of women in Eurasia in the 5000BC-1500CE interval seems to historically follow a lowering trajectory, second, this lowering trajectory seems to proceed in a top/down fashion and, third, the adoption of anti-...


11

New Zealand is usually credited to be the last significant area on Earth to have been colonized by human beings in the sense of the question; as the first settlers seem to have arrived in the late 1200CE. By contrast, there are signs of human settlements on Madagascar dating from the beginning of the common era and records of trade with the island dating ...


11

The Gregorian calendar, Western calendar or the Christian calendar, is a calendar that was a reform in 1582 to the Julian calendar. It was introduced by Pope Gregory XIII, after whom the calendar was named. But was is an adaptation of a calendar designed by Italian doctor, astronomer and philosopher Luigi Lilio. And it is not nesassarly based of Jesus birth ,...


11

This is why it is important to always keep the writer's intention in mind when studying some historical source. There are some different scenarios how that could happen: A contemporary writes down the conversation exactly as he heard it from the survivor. But we don't know how trustworthy that witness is. Obviously, most people will try to justify why they ...


11

This is a little bit of a stretch, as one was granted the title, but never gained control of the country, but five of the sons of Thorfinn Skull-splitter were Jarls of the Orkneys, which was more or less independent: Arnfinn Havard Ljot Skuli Hlodvir (Lots of interesting stuff here: the first three brothers were all married to the same woman, Ragnhild, ...


10

Olympic Games in old Greece were traditionally held every 4 years. Modern olympic Games respect that tradition. While in the beginning of modern Olympics, there were little economic pressure on the host (there were not as many sports as present day and no expensive infrastructure was needed), nowadays, it is just not economically feasible to hold them more ...


10

Age of consent laws could, in part, explain why we've settled on 18 or ages near to it. Age of consent statutes can be dated as far back as 1275 in England and were adopted in a number of other countries throughout Europe. Some of the first interpretations settled on the "age of marriage", which at the time was 12. Part of the problem with having a set ...


9

I can think of several examples which are big enough, recent enough and well known enough not to be disputed. In 1938 the Germans occupied Czechoslovakia, and civilians were free to settle there under the "Lebensraum" (breathing room) philosophy. The occupation was (at first) of an area populated mostly by ethnic Germans, but legally at least that doesn't ...


9

Hepatitis and encephalitis describe an inflammation of a specific organ (respectively the liver and the brain), not a specific virus or infectious agent, and can have multiple causes. Like many other infectious agents, the hepatitis viruses have been identified and described rather recently and early accounts are sometimes vague on the symptoms, thus making ...


8

According to The Last Lion - Defender of the Realm 1940-1965 by Manchester & Read (page 334), 40,000 British and ANZAC troops were evacuated from Greece in April 1941. That would leave about 15,000 total casualties - Killed, unevacuated wounded, and POW. Still from that source (page 356), Casualties in Crete a month later were 1,700 killed, 2,000 ...


8

In a specific case, his work was clearly intended as instructional manual for others: His work On Horsemanship addresses cavalry officers and others either involved with the training of horses or the leading of mounted troops. Thus sitting "between" your two positions of "for future generations" and "for own satisfaction". The twist being that he almost ...


7

I found this article from the Atlantic that addresses this topic and gives the recent events in Egypt as an example of a successful non-violent movement. There are similar examples going on currently in other Middle Eastern countries, as well as examples of some that turned to violence, such as Libya. There is also a web site for an organization called the ...


7

Firstly, the author's intentions are important. If this book/movie/article/game is intended to be historical fiction (think Downton Abbey or Apocalypse Now), then the author/creator would have full license to create their own dialogue and events. Within reason, of course - such fictional works typically have to retain a certain level of authenticity in the ...


6

Source: Kremer, Michael. "Population growth and technological change: one million BC to 1990." The Quarterly Journal of Economics (1993): 681-716. Graph by Richard Vermillion.


6

Going out on a limb here, and feel free to disagree, but what about the growth of the early Church? The growth of the Church in early centuries was a form of independence movement, inasmuch as early Christians simply wanted to practice their faith without fear of persecution. Also, the growth of the church (emphasis on the small "c"), meaning the local ...


6

Probably the more appropriate answer is strike actions in general, as also Gandhi did a long hunger strikes himself. Labour strikes date back at least to the strikes of Deir el-Medina: In about the 25th year the reign of Ramses III (c. 1170 BCE) the laborers were so exasperated by delays in supplies they threw down their tools and walked off the job ...


6

For a long time, 21 was the "age of adulthood". From Encyclopedia of Adult Development: As early as the thirteenth century, age 21 was an important marker in Britain, at least for men. This was the age, for example, when they could begin to serve as knights. It was believed that the physical requirements of combat - to wear a heavy suit of armor and ...


6

Of course we can only conjecture (as we cannot know exactly what was in Xenophon's mind), so I conjecture that motivation was the same as for many modern writers: it is the desire to spread one's knowledge and ideas. To the contemporaries and to the later generations. There are additional, secondary motivations, of course, such as fame, respect in the ...


5

For those running a Windows operating system with MS Outlook, who wish to experiment with alternate calendars, instructions are available here, or by selecting from the Ribbon in Office 2007 or later: File -> Options -> Calendar -> Calendar Options -> Enable Alternate Calendar The available Calendars are listed below with their respective representation of ...


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