In 2013 Israeli researchers from Tel Aviv university discovered a large cairn, buried under the water of the freshwater lake "Sea of Galilee" in northern part of state of Israel:

I understand that the structure is about 12 meters long and buried about 5-10 meters under water (considering shifts in water level in that lake).

I further understand since 2013 there is no further published data about this structure anywhere but there might be data in peer reviewed journals I can't access (please share data if you have access in an answer):

When and how was the cairn structure in the "Sea of Galilee" covered in water?

This site might have some aspect of a Megalith; I haven't seen enough pictures of it to determine.

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    Whatever it is, it isn't a megalith. The articles describe it as a stone mound or cairn. Since the Sea of Galilee was formed by tectonic activity at the end of the last Ice Age, if the structure is man-made, then it suggests it is older than that. Commented Feb 17, 2020 at 14:32
  • And also, I think it's interpretive in that case; from one of the images some rocks there seems to me, humbly, quite big, but it's a minor semantics matter; I agree cairn is better anyway.
    – user41617
    Commented Feb 17, 2020 at 15:09
  • @sempaiscuba I think you take a common description of the term megalith too seriously ; I have explained or tried to explain that from the only diving picture published in the sources I checked (not all of them linked) some rocks seem to me big as in "megaliths" and also this Google search shows, per my opinion, it's at least a bit more interpretive: google.com/…
    – user41617
    Commented Feb 17, 2020 at 15:22
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    This is a site about history. The term has a very specific meaning in archaeology, and this is a question about an archaeological site. The fact that it is mis-used (I notice one notable, and wholly unsurprising, example being on ancient-code.com) in other contexts doesn't mean it should also be mis-used here. Commented Feb 17, 2020 at 15:28
  • This is a site about history Maybe I shouldn't say I know what this site is about and as you could read when visiting my profile some of my questions here were quite nicely received by the community. All I did was trying to demonstrate how the term is interprative and how from an SEO perspective it's at least not bad somehow mentioning in the question. I am keen to leave it as is after user: Mark C. Wallace (intentionally) returned its deleted-by-me mentioning in the question.
    – user41617
    Commented Feb 17, 2020 at 15:31

2 Answers 2


It appears that water levels in the Jordan valley have moved around greatly. Between 70,000 and 12,000 BP there was actually a lake covering the entire valley which has been named Lake Lisan

enter image description here

I believe this range roughly corresponds to the last glacial period, which apparently affected the weather in this region of the Middle East in a way that gave it much more rainfall than it gets today.

This changed drastically with the onset of the interglacial (melting), causing the area to lose water down to about 500 meters below sea level by 13,000 BC. If my math isn't failing me, that would be enough to completely dry up the area around the modern Sea of Galilee.

In fact, compared to that level of change, drying up or refilling the Sea of Galilee is really small potatoes. Its 215 meters below sea level, and only 43 meters at its deepest point. Minor climate or rainfall pattern changes would be more than enough to make drastic changes in its shoreline. In fact, it looks like we use the existence or absence of those "Early Natufian" archeological sites to plot more recent lake levels. Based on those it appears that the shoreline varied during that period from 230 to 215m below sea level. Today it is at about -215.

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    Have you considered adding a final statement to the effect that: At a current 10m or so below lake level, the lower value of 230m below sea level would put the cairn comfortably above Lake level. All the facts are there, but the key conclusion seems conspicuous by absence. Commented Nov 27, 2020 at 0:43

The Sea of Galilee "monument" might be the holy mountain built by Enmerkar, one of the earliest kings in Mesopotamia. He reigned before anything else in Mesopotamia happened. He reigned not only before the Sumerians came from Dilmun, but before the land of Dilmun was even founded. He came to the throne when his father went into the sea and disappeared. It is not clear what sea the texts intend, but it might have been the Sea of Galilee. Enmerkar invaded the land of Aratta in the mountains north of Mesopotamia. After a year long battle, he defeated the people of Aratta. He found a holy mountain used by them. He demanded that the people of Aratta bring stones from the mountains to build a holy mountain for him near his home. He was followed to the throne by his friend and general (named Lulugabad - spelling???) His son in turn was the famous Gilgamesh of the Gilgamesh Epic. Enmerkar was mentioned in the earliest texts from Mesopotamia that can actually be translated. It is unclear exactly if and when he reigned, and surviving texts include both early and later material. However, the best case may be that he reigned at the end of the Younger Dryas when the world had been devastated by the return of full glacial cold. That drought would have lowered the Sea of Galilee far enough that the Sea of Galilee monument could have been built on dry ground. The Sea of Galilee monument looks very much like the kind of holy mountain that Enmerkar would have built. It was also made from rocks that were dragged to the site from outside of the valley (not local stone). You can read online the texts about Enmerkar like Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta, Enmerkar and En-suhgir-ana, Lugalbanda in the Mountain Cave, and Lugalbanda and the Anzu Bird. See ETCSL for a translation of Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta. - [email protected]

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    Some paragraphing would be nice... Commented Nov 27, 2020 at 1:01

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