Today, the Kazakh parliament decided to rename their capital from Nur-Sultan back to Astana (source). According to that article,
Few cities in the world can have been renamed as often as Kazakhstan’s capital has been over the past century or so.
Here is my attempt to summarize the names, with help of Wikipedia:
Are there any other significant cities with a comparable number of name changes? What is the record holder?
I'm aware that cities may have different names in different languages, and some name changes may have been contested (e.g. in case of foreign occupation). Still, I hope that there's some kind of official record. I'm aware of a few other name changes (New York City was founded as New Amsterdam; Saint Petersburg was founded as such but was also officially named Petrograd and Leningrad for a while), but this case seems rather special to me.