22

England in 400BC was a broadly Celtic culture with Pictish remnants in the North; 1600 years later it had gained a lot of influence from Roman, German, French, and Norse invasions. Language, food, architecture, laws, and so on were much different. These are the obvious changes. Your middle age Englander transported to Iron Age England would perhaps guess ...


14

That is a really good question. The truth is that evidence for any sort of "cultural continuity" is scant. One word of caution though. I generally hesitate to use the word "ritual" in an archaeological context. Too often, the word has been used as a synonym for "I don't know", or, as Paul Bahn put it: Ritual - All-purpose explanation used where nothing ...


13

The perception that the Celts were promiscuous seems to be based on, at least in part, ancient writers’ interpretations of marital relationships and / or a superficial knowledge of Celtic customs and culture. On the latter point, Strabo admits to lacking evidence according to David Rankin in Celts and the Classical World, ... Strabo who says that ...


13

The transition from Bronze Age to Iron Age in Europe occurred later than the transition in the Middle East. It started in the south and gradually worked its way north. It was most certainly a period of bloodshed, but then that's been true of most of european history, hasn't it? You might imagine pitched battles of armies, one outfitted in old bronze ...


11

One theory is that the early kingdom period was actually a period of Etruscan domination which the Roman mythmakers (whose work is reflected in Livy) later reworked as the tale of the Tarquinian dynasty. An interesting discussion of this can be found in the book The Beginnings of Rome: Italy and Rome from the Bronze Age to the Punic Wars by Tim Cornell. ...


10

As far back as 8th century BC there was evidence of 'proto money' in the form of rings, bracelets and other wearable currency items. They were often roughly made and sometimes had marks on them so they could cut them into segments to buy smaller items. They tended to be made of gold, silver or bronze and there are plenty floating around in museums and even ...


10

The problem with answering this is that Europe for the most part was illiterate at the time. We do know from the literate areas that there was tremendous upheval in Fertile Crescent at about this time. In this period the (illiterate) Dorians wiped out Mycenean civilization, plunging the Greek area into a dark age. Technically this was Europe. Then a horde ...


9

The Celts were using "ring money" as early as 800bc, up until 300bc, when they picked up the idea of using coins from the Greeks.


9

There is some reason to believe that the Lapis Niger includes a contemporary reference to the king, and it dates from the period associated with the monarchy. It could be argued that the use of 'rex' here is purely religious - just like in Greece the word continued to be used for religious purposes long after the political institution was left behind. ...


8

According to Five thousand years of livestock in Britain Biological Journal of Linnean Society (1989), 38: 31-37 : There may also have been some interbreeding between domestic and wild cattle in Britain during the prehistoric period, but by 3000 years ago the aurochs was probably extinct (Clutton-Brock, 1986). The latest radiocarbon date for the ...


8

Judea has always been a key part of the "land bridge" that connects what we now know as the Arab world, specifically north Africa and the Middle East. In biblical times, Judea was the gateway by which Egypt attacked Middle Eastern countries, and vice-versa. In 146 BC For instance, Ptolemy VI, aided by Jonathan Macabee, had invaded Syria and captured ...


7

If we look at sub-saharan Africa then the times for categorising these "ages" are a bit shifted and stretched compared with Asia, Europe and North-Africa. Metal-using Africa Farming societies in Africa developed after the origins and spread of livestock pastoralism throughout the continent. Likewise, the early use of metallurgy by farming communities was ...


7

I can think of at least one place where it would have been common. Roman infantry were typically equipped with short-swords which they used once combat got down to hand-to-hand. Of course their opponents weren't typically from rich empires that could afford standard swords for everyone, but in the case of the Persians it was close. Persian armies seem to ...


7

From watching the old series "Time Team" it is common to find Iron Age and even Saxon graveyards built in and around old neolithic mounds. I don't think that this indicates great continuity in culture as much as a recognition that this was a site with some kind of power to it. In a similar fashion, Saxons sometimes clustered graves in and around Roman ...


7

The area had multiple claims to fame. From a strategic viewpoint, it connected the Tigris and Euphrates basin to the Nile basin, as already mentioned by Tom. It was also part of the fertile crescent, a moist and fertile tract of agricultural land compared to its otherwise arid and semi-arid surroundings: The Eastern Mediterranean wasn't as hot and dry ...


7

Barter, gifts, and payments - same as now. For example, "I'll swap you a sheep for half of that pig I just slaughtered." The head of the tribe gives weapons and jewelry to people to both bind them in his debt and to show his wealth and power. "I'll work on your fields for a day in return for food and lodging." P.s. The Celts had coins before the Romans ...


6

This paper (in .pdf) argues against ancient Chinese mathematics being aware of prime numbers. The Rhind Mathematical Papyrus, dating to the 15-16th century BCE, indicates an Egyptian knowledge of primes evidenced in their fractional system, but it's not definitive proof. It looks like the Greeks were indeed the first.


6

Meteoric Iron Before 1000 BC meteoric iron or occasionally small native iron deposits were worked. These sources are pure iron and can easily be turned into weapons. In Tutankhamun's tomb was found a meteoric iron dagger. Only tiny quantities of such sources are available. Bog Iron Iron production in significant quantities began around 500 BC. One ...


6

This is a community wiki. Feel free to add and / or improve on this answer. As Semaphore noted in his comment, "the information simply isn't there for a lot of cases" but here are some estimates or 'best guesses' based on what little I have been able to find. Ages in 43 AD Boudica was at least in her late teens in 43 AD but Oldcat's estimate of late 20s ...


5

You kind of answered your own question by mentioning the phalanx. First of all, you will often read some historians saying that chariots were not used by "mountain" people or that the terrain in such-and-such country was not suitable for chariots. This is not true. Macedonia is one of the most mountainous areas in Europe and they were famous for their ...


5

Also check out Qin Shi Huang, the first emperor to unify China (same man who's tomb has the terracotta army surrounding it). The Qin province sent forth massive armies using bronze while a lot of the rest of China was transitioning to iron/steel (and Qin won in part due to their high grade of bronze compared to low the grade iron weapons of the time, for ...


5

'Ghost walls' is a concept that is used in archaeology. But maybe not just so fanciful as in these historical fiction books: Meanwhile, trial trenches at the north end of the adjacent long and narrow meadow—on the surface of which, when ploughed, stray finds of Roman pottery and coins had often been made—revealed a well-defined layer of Roman building ...


4

Sandy Ware is a type of medieval (and earlier) pottery with enough quartz sand mixed in with the clay for it to be visible in the fabric of the pot. The sand acted as a temper which helped bind the clay together, and keep the finished pot from cracking while being dried and subsequently fired. Examples are found across the UK, and have different chronologies ...


4

Possibly the Battle of Kadesh. Check out this video.


4

The very concept of "Age of" is flawed. If one hears phrases like stone age or dark ages, which are almost about the only two ages an historian would use seriously, you have instantly negative connotations about the timeframe to discuss. That is not to say that "ages" are not a well established, popular and even classic concept: The Ages of Man are the ...


2

Mathematicians are better at mathematics than at history, and have perpetuated an error concerning what Euclid did. They frequently state in textbooks and elsewhere that Euclid's proof that there are infinitely many prime numbers is by contradiction. But it is not. Euclid considered what happens if you multiply finitely many prime numbers and then add 1. For ...


2

I would speculate that chariots weren't used as much on Greek turf due to their lack of maneuverability on hilly terrain. On the plains of Egypt they would have a deadly impact, but try to drag them though hills and orchards, let alone the mountains… Persians did try to use cavalry, but even that proved to be ineffective, and possibly had cost them defeat ...


2

Anatolia is often credited with being the birthplace of ironworking. Ironworking precedes the Hittites, dating back to at least the third millennium BC in Anatolia, but the Hittites made important advances in metallurgy. Unfortunately, we know very little about the origins of metal working. Archaeological finds are very rare: because metal was so valuable, ...


2

As I say elsewhere: many interrelated issues seems critical now, but we will know which were truly important only when this period ends First, Atomic, Jet and Space "ages" are continuing now simultaneously - we use nuclear energy and weapons (as deterrent), fly in jets and actively use (near) space. IOW, they are not mutually exclusive, but describe ...


2

The Anthropocene is a proposed designation of our current epoch characterised by significant human impact upon the earths geology and ecology; it includes but is not limited to anthropogenic climate change. The term has not yet been officially recognised by the International Union of the Geological Sciences and nor by the International Commission on ...


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