49

I believe this is as much sociological as medical. Terms such as 'shell shock' or 'battle fatigue' were used from at least WWI - it was believed that shelling actually 'shocked' the brain - but there was far less understanding of, or sympathy for, the effect war could have on men (women were not generally involved in actual combat). The term 'NMF' was ...


41

This cannot be answered comprehensively here. But a few key points might be revealed. The precautions mentioned in the question are by far not the only ones that were given, just mere examples. At the time, medical and lay authorities throughout Europe sought to give rational explanations for the virulent plague, which was clearly contagious. They issued ...


38

It was in Glasgow in 1957, as part of the city's fight against tuberculosis. It's worth noting that the X-Ray machines weren't actually on the tram. It was simply used to advertise the campaign. [Image source Wellcome Collection CC BY] Mobile X-Ray units were used in the UK (the Mass Miniature Radiography (MMR) programme), but in vans, rather than trams. ...


32

The first example of catapulting plague victims into a besieged city was that of Caffa (Modern day Feodosia) in the Crimea. This was in fact the first account of plague in European history. Caffa had been under siege by the Mongol (aka. Tartar or Golden Horde) army. The siege had been protracted. First starting in 1343, it was lifted by the arrival of ...


28

The problem was that during the 18th Century, they didn't know that scurvy was caused by lack of Vitamin C (mainly because they didn't know what vitamins were). Therefore, they didn't go looking for foods that were rich in Vitamin C to cure it. It should also be noted that there was no clear relationship between a food's acidity and its Vitamin C content. ...


25

The Oxford Dictionary of Quotations has the following citation for that quote: (apologies for the limited quality of the scan. I'm using my hand-held scanner.) As their source, they cite The Life, Letters and Labours of Francis Galton by By Karl Pearson (p415): Interestingly, unless he is quoting from a source that he does not cite (such as a letter from ...


22

The term PTSD was invented in the 1980s by the medical discipline of psychiatry. The condition which the term PTSD refers to was well known to people from antiquity under various names with different meanings specific to those societies ( http://io9.com/5898560/from-irritable-heart-to-shellshock-how-post-traumatic-stress-became-a-disease ). The matter is ...


21

Your main question has been pretty well answered, but I'd like to clarify a few points: If the attackers had plague victims to toss over the wall, it means they were also exposed to the plague. Which might adversely affect their ability to maintain the siege. Even an extremely virulent plague like the Black Death only killed something like a third to ...


19

The "white plague" refers to tuberculosis. The incident, which captured the nation's imagination for one day, is described by this report from the Grizzly Bear Magazine, April 1914: 4000-MILE HIKE TO NATIONAL CAPITAL The Pacific Coast has done much to attract the attention of the world, but one of the most unique things that has been formulated ...


18

The Ancient Egyptians were pretty much aware of the general mechanics of childbirth. The earliest source I could find is one of the Kahun Papyri, the Kahun Gynaecological Papyrus (~1850 BC). It deals with women's health, including pregnancy, fertility, menstrual issues and medical contraception. This last issue, contraception, is the more revealing of the ...


16

The symptoms of PTSD were first described by Herodotus when referring to Epizelus, a survivor of the 490BC Battle of Marathon, in his Histories 6.117.1-3: In this fight at Marathon there were slain of the Barbarians about six thousand four hundred men, and of the Athenians a hundred and ninety and two. Such was the number which fell on both sides; ...


14

Because the medical profession was opposed to it. Roosevelt's administration feared that including the universal health insurance provisions would kill the entire Social Security Act. For the sake of passing the Social Security bill, we postponed the introduction of the bill on health insurance as the opposition was so great from the American Medical ...


14

Found him. He was Justus Friedrich Carl Hecker (1795 – 1850), doctor and professor at the Frederick William University in Berlin. His essay on the plague was "Der schwarze Tod im vierzehnten Jahrhundert: Nach den Quellen für Ärzte und gebildete Nichtärzte bearbeitet." According to the Wikipedia he is the founder of the study of the history of disease. Note ...


14

The original association between the snake and medicine is from the Greek god of healing, Asclepius. I put an image of the "Rod of Asclepius" below. However, the Rod of Asclepius became confused with the symbol of another Greek god, the Caduceus of Hermes (also pictured below). The Caduceus has been used as the symbol of medicine in the U.S. since the late ...


13

Expanding on @MonsterTruck's comment above, China (especially the east part) is really good for food production. According to Wikipedia's list of countries by agricultural output China has 17 per cent of global agricultural production today, compared to around 7 for the European Union, 7 for India and 4 for the United States. I would expect the construction ...


13

Here are some methods that were used throughout history to fight infection. Australian Aborigines discovered that eucalyptus and tea tree bark and leaves could ease certain infections. Other aboriginal societies used local herbs to help ease the symptoms of infection. This was typically tribal knowledge passed down through generations of healers. As ...


13

Adding to the previous answers regarding the use of the hand to assess body temperature, there have been several works which are quite suited to answer this question, which I hope to summarise here. In essence, the answer to this question is in knowing when were thermometers first used to measure body temperature. As it is with this information that we can ...


11

The oldest human could still live to be over 100 just as they do today. This was of course much rarer. Here's some data from the University of Texas on the matter. Infant Mortality by that page was 31.9% considerably worse than even the worst of the world 60 years ago. This was skewed by infanticide and such.


11

I think it's safe to say that they were regarded not that differently than they are today. An easy example is Shakespeare's A Comedy of Errors, from the beginning of the 17th century. That play revolves around twins being mistaken for each other. The comedic part of that isn't of concern to the question, but the fact that the play treats the characters as ...


11

Comparing both autopsies archived officially at (AT-OeStA/HHStA UR FUK 2790, 2791 Title: Zwei nach dem Ableben der Kaiserin und Königin Elisabeth aufgenommene legalisierte Protokolle über die stattgehabte Leichenschau und Autopsie (Obduktion) (1898.09.12)) reveals that they are consisting of more pages than are visible in the picture above. Both went ...


10

"Taking a vomit" may have meant more generally taking something to cause vomiting, what we would call an emetic. See eg. http://thequackdoctor.com/index.php/tag/17th-century/ If you are ill it's because something is out of balance. It's a lot easier to get stuff out of a patient to adjust the balance - so the popularity of purges, emetics, bloodletting ...


10

SHORT ANSWER The most widely accepted view among scholars is that Titus died a natural death. DETAILED ANSWER Suetonius stated he died of a fever. Cassius Dio says that ‘some writers’ say that Titus died a natural death but also mentions that The common report is that he was put out of the way by his brother, for Domitian had previously plotted ...


10

As other's have stated, part of the reason is that it's a medical term that's only been coined in recent history. The same is true with Autism, for instance. People have always had it, but it wasn't until the 60's that the term came into use to describe what we now know as Autism. There's also another medical aspect to this as well and that's the fact that ...


10

The relevant regulation (mainly the first) in WW1 would appear to be: Article 9 of the 1906 Geneva Convention provides: The personnel charged exclusively with the removal, transportation, and treatment of the sick and wounded, as well as with the administration of sanitary formations and establishments … shall be respected and protected under all ...


10

Theories about the causes and cures of dancing mania John Waller, Dancing Plague: The Strange, True Story of an Extraordinary Illness (2009) argues that the Strasbourg dancers were exhibiting extreme penitent behavior: The people of Strasbourg danced in their misery due to an unquestioning belief in the wrath of God and His holy saints: it was a ...


10

tl;dr In fact, it appears that doctors in Germany during the Third Reich did take the Hippocratic Oath (or something equivalent to it). However, that Oath had been drastically re-interpreted in line with a new framework of medical ethics that had been adopted by the Nazis. Furthermore, we have testimony from the Nuremberg War Crimes trials where doctors ...


10

Merck's 1899 Manual of the Materia Medica, described as a "ready reference pocket book for the practicing physician" has the following: Cerebral Concussion. Rest: absolute to be enjoined. Stimulants to be avoided. Warmth: to extremities. A Manual of surgical treatment v.7, 1899-1903 (published in 1901) goes in to much more detail: In the ...


9

Acne has always been with us. According to "The Historic Panorama of Acne Vulgaris," Pharaohs had acne: Some Egyptian writings have mentioned that Pharaohs suffered from acne and had also made efforts to resolve it. Many stories and superstitious beliefs were related to the cause, clinical presentation and treatment of the acne breakouts. Those ...


9

I am not entirely sure of what you're question is but maybe this answer will clarify from a French Wiki page: Researchers working in Asia during the "Third Pandemic" identified plague vectors and the plague bacillus. In 1894, in Hong Kong, Swiss-born French bacteriologist Alexandre Yersin isolated the responsible bacterium (Yersinia pestis) and determined ...


9

Avicenna (980–1037) said that fever was the increased temperature of the heart (Canon I, part 4), so he checked the temperature by touching the chest over the heart with the hand. This system was used during the Middle Ages and the Reinassance in Europe. It also helped to check the pulse. Avicenna based his works on Galen and Hippocrates, perhaps they ...


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