Podcast #128: We chat with Kent C Dodds about why he loves React and discuss what life was like in the dark days before Git. Listen now.
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Satan is a character from Hebrew mythology1. His most full representation found in the Tanakh is the first two chapters of Job in which הַשָּׂטָן (ha-Satan) appears along with the בְּנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים (ben 'elohiym) before God. Job becomes the topic of conversation (on God's initiative) and Satan suggests that Job only worships God because of the blessings he ...


13

No one "coined" it; it is a romanization of the genitive form of Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab. The -i suffix is the usual way to transliterate it, just as we have Saudi, Kuwaiti, Omani, and so on. (The more common way in English to create a genitive for a thinker would be to use the Greek-derived -ic or the Latin-derived -an, hence you do see Wahhabic and ...


12

Isra'el means "he struggles with God" and is the name granted to Jacob after he wrestles with an angel in Genesis 32: Then Jacob was left alone, and a man wrestled with him until daybreak. When he saw that he had not prevailed against him, he touched the socket of his thigh; so the socket of Jacob’s thigh was dislocated while he wrestled with him. Then he ...


10

First, Haiti achieved independence in 1804, way before the US Civil-War. Haiti was originally called Saint-Domingue Wikipedia says that name was originally "Ayiti" as derived from Taíno and African languages At the end of the double battle for emancipation and independence, former slaves proclaimed the independence of Saint-Domingue on 1 January 1804,[...


10

Ascertaining details in legends might be a good thing. But it is a legend and curiously lacks detail, leaving open a huge space for projections and arbitrary symbols, to be filled by listeners. And perhaps to the detriment of flower sellers who have a more complicated time instead of always stocking for example coffee flowers, or others. It might be more ...


9

Well, it seems before IXth century there was a city Gorodishche (literally: eclosure). In IXth century a new fort "Novgorod" was founded nearby the old fort. It seems the name is meant to contrast the new fort Novgorod to the old fort Gorodishche. The city initially was subjected to Ladoga (Aldeigja, Aldeigborg). Ladoga was the ancient capital city of the ...


9

According to the Oxford Companion to Archaeology, the term New Kingdom was introduced by the German historian Eduard Meyer in his Geschichte des Altertums. English Egyptologists adopted his usage, displacing their earlier designation of the period as the "Empire". Source: Silberman, Neil Asher, and Alexander A. Bauer, eds. The Oxford Companion to ...


9

As an addendum to Choster's answer, Here is the English usage of "Wahhabi", according to Google's book data: (Click for larger image)


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"Assassin" doesn't really mean somebody paid to kill. It rather means somebody who kills a prominent person by surprise attack. (1, 2, 3) Latin seems to have had a word for this: sicarius. I don't know if ancient Greek did.


8

The Standard Model of particle physics got its name from the late Sam Treiman. It was first coined in 1975 when Treiman, together with long time friend Abraham Pais, published a paper in which they used "standard model" to reference the four quarks theory. The term 'Standard Model' was first coined by Pais and Treiman in (1975), with reference to the ...


8

In France they called it "The Great War" (La Grande Guerre), pacifist veterans called it "La der' des der'" (The Last of the Last (Wars)). In England it was called the World War, or the Great War. I think the German diplomats were the first to call it a World War (Weltkrieg), before it even began. I don't know of any other names for it in German. i know ...


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OK, there seems to be 3 distinct namings here, that need to be discussed separately. First of all, the self-identified name. In Khazakh language, the official name of the country is "Қазақстан Республикасы", with a "k"; and it was always spelled that way. In English, the correct answer is "it doesn't really matter". English frequently mangles the spelling ...


7

The meaning of "barso" is clearer than its origin. Samuli Kaislaniemi analyzed it in his PhD thesis Reconstructing Merchant Multilingualism : Lexical Studies of Early English East India Company Correspondence, pp. 256: RC uses barso in the sense 'little barrel' (cf. Farrington 1991:805). Etymology uncertain; does not appear in PD It., Pt., or Sp. (cf. ...


7

No, that doesn't seem a likely explanation, not after 750 years of reconquista. The answer is for now: we don't know. From Wikipedia: Spanish explorers in the 16th century, when they first discovered the Baja California peninsula west of the Sea of Cortez, at first thought the peninsula to be a large island. The name "California" was applied to the ...


6

The earliest references I could find where Satan is called διάβολος, are in the Book of Revelation, written somewhere between 70 AD to 90 AD in Koine Greek: (2:10) ΜΗ ΦΟΒΟΥ ΜΗΔΕΝ ΕΚ ΤΩΝ ΟΣΑ ΜΕΛΛΕΙΣ ΝΑ ΠΑΘΗΣ ΙΔΟΥ Ο ΔΙΑΒΟΛΟΣ ΜΕΛΛΕΙ ΝΑ ΒΑΛΗ ΤΙΝΑΣ ΕΞ ΥΜΩΝ ΕΙΣ ΦΥΛΑΚΗΝ ΔΙΑ ΝΑ ΔΟΚΙΜΑΣΘΗΤΕ ΚΑΙ ΘΕΛΕΤΕ ΕΧΕΙ ΘΛΙΨΙΝ ΔΕΚΑ ΗΜΕΡΩΝ ΓΙΝΟΥ ΠΙΣΤΟΣ ΜΕΧΡΙ ΘΑΝΑΤΟΥ ΚΑΙ ΘΕΛΩ ΣΟΙ ...


6

I think a complete reply here is impossible, because of the sheer number of such events in history. However, these events are more common after (I'd say) the French Revolution when the modern concept of "nation" was born. The best such example (I think) is that of Turkey and Greece. Both these countries where multicultural and multilanguage in the ...


6

The OED attests several use of the word familiar in Chaucer's works from the 1380's, in the usual sense of "pertaining to personal relations or family." However the earliest use attested to in the OED in the sense of a familiar spirit is from 1584: R SCOTT, Discovering Witchcraft, III. xv. 65 A flie, otherwise called a divell or familiar There is also ...


6

From the book, Before the Fallout: From Marie Curie to Hiroshima there is this comment: Bohr urged Frisch to write a paper with Lise Meitner as soon as possible and promised to say nothing until it was published. By dint of long-distance telephone calls, aunt and nephew drafted a short note to the editor of the British journal Nature, describing ...


6

When did the word Holodomor appear? Wikipedia explains the etymology of holodomor as follows: The word Holodomor literally translated from Ukrainian means "death by hunger", or "to kill by hunger, to starve to death". Sometimes the expression is translated into English as "murder by hunger or starvation". Holodomor is a compound of the Ukrainian words ...


5

The Primary Chronicle of Kievan Rus' lists some of the early cities, fortresses or trading posts, including Beloozero (Belozersk) Murom Novgorod Polotsk Rostov Izborsk (though it is unclear whether this was a city) See for example pages 59 and 60 of http://www.mgh-bibliothek.de/dokumente/a/a011458.pdf It is common for "New-" named places and things now ...


5

After annexing Poland in 1939, Nazi Germany administration renamed some of Polish cities: Łódź was renamed to Litzmannstadt, Gdynia was renamed to Gotenhafen. After 1863 and January Uprising failure, Russian administration used name Kraj Privislansky (Vistula Territories) referring to territories of former Kingdom of Poland ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/...


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The best answer to your actual question I know of is Belgium. When the country was created, it was sort of a mishmash of different languages and cultures, which broke off from the Dutch because the rulers there couldn't stop themselves from trying to push their own religion and language on the inhabitants. Given that history, they really needed a neutral ...


5

USSR was mentioned in another answer as related to Poland, but USSR - and Russian Empire before 1917 - had a strong habit of doing this. As a random example: Kaliningrad was renamed from Königsberg after USSR annexed it from Germany following WW2 Königsberg was renamed Kaliningrad in 1946 after the death of Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet ...


5

Ormond Castle was named after the hill it stood on, Ormond Hill. It is now impossible to trace how the name came about, but the Scottish antiquarian John Pinkerton says it was apparently an ancient moot-hill. Incidentally these were known in Scottish Gaelic as tom a' mhòid, which may provide a clue as to Ormond's etymology. [I]t appears that Ormond was a ...


5

The instrument referred to as 'tuba' in this context was simply the trumpet, rather than the modern instrument named tuba ('tuba' being the Latin word for 'trumpet'). In his book Obseruationes anatomicae. Ad Petrum Mannam medicum Cremonensem, Gabrielle Fallopio wrote: Quare cum humus classici organi demptis capreolis, vel etiam iisdem additis meatus ...


5

Ancient accounts for etymologies can be enlightening and at the same time be quite misleading. What's still true today: in all cases that involve folk etymology, the real, linguistic etymology may be completely unrelated. Here we are dealing with myths as well. Just looking ta the myths surrounding the origin and founding of Rome itself, which is much ...


4

Named differently from original inhabitants: America, Australia, New Zealand Changing names: Irish people & governments don't often use the term "British Isles" to include Ireland. The city of Derry/Londonderry in Northern Ireland is another example of name changes. However each tribe wants to call it by their name. Names are a complex issue, people ...


4

The Hebrew Bible is among the early texts mentioning Susa (under the Hebrew name of Shushan which is the same world as a lily) but there exist somewhat older, Sumarian documents that mention Susa, e.g. Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta where Susa is quoted as a place obedient to Inanna, a goddess of love. This text is from the 21st century BC but similar ...


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According to this: http://www.bibelwissenschaft.de/wibilex/das-bibellexikon/lexikon/sachwort/anzeigen/details/neues-reich-3/ch/746c4a4853fde241e7777581bf2e29c9/ the designation “Neues Reich” was in use since 1834. This was about 20 years before the birth of Eduard Meyer.


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