Regular banknotes, issued in "normal times" and made from paper are practically all rectangular and without holes. But there were a couple of times when people remembered that anything can be "money", if they just believe in it.
Below are some examples of holes in notes and odd shapes. These examples were chosen to fit the question as originally framed. ...
A real "Gold mark" it is not. Real leather it is, originally intended for shoe soles.
This is Notgeld or Ersatz-money, issued after the Great War during the period known as hyperinflation and was one of the last tries to combat the consequences of inflation on a local level. Although most of these were printed on fancy papers, intended for local ...
Not a Game Token. It's play money for children from Topps and it is collectable.
That's a Topps 1949 Play Coins of the World piece. Tops issued 24 countries, with values 5, 10, 25, 50 or 100; in 1948 and 49.
They are collectable. I found them going on eBay for about $9.95 per coin. Originally they sold for 10 cents for a pack of 5 and a ...
From the portrait, it looks to be a William I (William the Conqueror) "bonnet-type" silver penny.
However, you should also be aware that there are a lot of replica and reproduction issues of that particular coin.
As noted by @SimonB and @richardb in the comments, your coin appears to have the letters 'WRL' stamped on the obverse, which indicates that it is ...
Here are a couple of square banknotes. The first one is also possibly unique in that it is one-sided.
"A small square shaped and rather scarce very good or much better banknote from Argentina. This is the 1st April 1867 one peso banknote issued by the Province of Buenos Ayres in Argentina. The note is of white paper with black printing." Source: picclick....
According to Jamila's Coins and Notes Collection blog, this is a modern iraqi coin from 1981. Here's a photo showing the front and back of that coin:
I've found it on on Jamila's blog, with an overview of iraqi coins. There, it's described as follows:
IRAQ - 10 Fils (Year 1981) (AH 1401)
Description: Under President:
Saddam Hussein (16 Jul 1979 - ...
It's a modern or relatively recent fake or fantasy coin, a novelty item of no value.
It is too round
It looks cast rather than struck
The design is too crude
It looks like it has black paint rubbed into it.
The greek lettering is ungrammatical.
It doesn't have the patina and wear pattern normally found on old coins.
There are many very similar or near-...
It looks to be a version of a coin representing the Armenian king Tigranes II, with the Tyche of Antioch on the flip side. You can read about the history at the above wiki link.
Above image from The Melammu Project
Some more versions can be seen here
An article here actually theorizes that the star symbol on the crown may represent Halley's Comet.
The first coin doesn't have much detail to go by.
But the second coin looks like it might have two soldiers standing with banners. Some Roman coins have that. Here's an example of a coin with Constantine I, c 334-335:
There are a couple of pages with coin cleaning tips on the web. In short: toothpicks, toothbrushes, soap, and (distilled) water; gently, with ...
The top picture is quite obviously a coin with a crude depiction of a seventh century "byzantine" emperor holding a globe with a cross on top. The early Muslim coins issued in former Roman territories were obviously based on Roman coins which the subject people were more familiar with, or else made with reused and modified Roman coin dies.
In 636 the ...
What you're seeing is the effect of the US Coinage Acts of 1853 and 1873, and the Bland Allison Act of 1878.
The silver dollar was based on the weight established by law under the Coinage Act of 1837. Under the act, coin sizes are based on assumed weight ratio of 16:1 (i.e. 16 oz silver is 1 oz gold). The weight of a silver dollar was set to be 412....
This coin is from Nepal and belongs to King of Nepal Sri Mahendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev and came in existence in Vikrami Samvat 2012 (Gregorian calendar-1955).
letters inscribed are:-
श्री महेन्द्र वीर विक्रम शाहदेव 2012.
i.e in English Sri Mahendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev 2012
Coin Sri Mahendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev, Vikrami Samvat 2012 (Gregorian calendar-...
It is known that coins were minted in the first years, if not the first, of the new Emperor's reign. The populace often learned of a new Roman Emperor when coins appeared with the new Emperor's portrait. Some of the emperors who ruled only for a short time made sure that a coin bore their image; Quietus, for example, ruled only part of the Roman Empire from ...
This looks like a Chinese square hole coin; the four characters identify its type and era. They are read in the order North-South-East-West, and reads:
咸豐通寶 Xianfeng Tongbao
This page has a lot of information on how to interpret those characters. The first two characters give the era, and the second two the type of coin.
This coin is a 通寶 tongbao.
This particular coin is part of a set of commemorative tokens (aka fantasy coins) made in (modern) China, with a token for each of the Qing Dynasty emperors. This one shows Emperor Nurhaci with the dates when he was in power shown below his likeness on the "coin".
It has Arabesque inscriptions so it is minted by one of the Muslim Kingdoms or Empires. They are similar in style to Suri/Mughal coinage
Your first coin is upside down. By setting it right we get the result:
The encircled words are the only ones readable in the inscription. They read Sultan Ibrahim. (السلطان ابراھیم).
There's only one monarch by that name ...
I have to agree with the comments. Most coins have always been round but maybe some Asian countries have had more non-round coins than other areas of the world. But it also depends on what you want to call a coin. There's Chinese spade money from 650 BC for example. India has a long history of square coins which are definitely coins.
This one is from 450 - ...
Coins in Classical Greece did not bear the image of rulers so there was no 'personal' motive to recall coins issued during the time of previous rulers. Coins featured images of gods, goddesses, animals and objects. The most widely distributed coinage in Classical Greece was that of Athens, which was
uniform to the point of monotony - an ...
It is a Caesar denarius minted in 49 BC. This was the first type of coin Caesar had minted. The obverse is an elephant trampling a snake with CAESAR beneath. The reverse features the fetishes of the Pontifex Maximus, a title Caesar held at the time. See Roman Republican Coinage by Michael Crawford.
Licence: Creative Commons Share Alike Attribution 2.5 - ...
As it says on the coin, the portrait is the German poet, philosopher, physician, historian, and playwright Friedrich Schiller.
Schiller's portrait was replaced by that of Paul von Hindenburg from 1935-1939.
I think that what you have there is actually a 'silver' Antoninianus minted under Caracalla:
You are correct that the seated figure is Victory (seated facing right on her cuirass, with a shield on her knee).
The text on the obverse reads:
ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM
and on the reverse:
P M TR P XX COS IIII PP
The text under the seated Victory is:
I found an article that describes a 7700 pound (3500 kg) hoard of coins in Huoluochaideng, China. Most of the coins are supposed to be more than 2000 years old, although the quantity is not specified in the article:
The coins were found in 3,000-year-old coin pits in the ancient town of Huoluochaideng, Lian Jilin, a researcher with the regional Institute ...
Normally it is difficult to provide evidence that something doesn't exist. I can offer this article on another website, Society of Private and Pioneer Numismatics, concerning early coins used in California (emphasis mine):
There is some evidence that tokens were used in exchange for labor and
goods. On September 3rd, 1846, a visitor to Sutter’s fort, ...
Robert Bartlett, professor of Medieval History at the University of St Andrews, has written that the success of Henry II's short cross type coinage issued in 1180
was so great that no one was willing even to tamper with its
inscription, so that English pennies bore the legend 'King Henry'
throughout the reigns of Richard I and John.
Source: Robert ...
It looks to be a modern fake of a coin of Philip I of Heliopolis (244-249 CE)
The inscription on the obverse reads
IMP CAES M IVL PHILPPVS OVBOVS
And on the reverse:
IOMH COL HEL
together with the temple of Zeus Heliopolitanus.
The factors that suggest this is a fake are the spelling error PHILPPVS (rather than PHILIPPVS) and the meaningless OVBOVS ...
There are some great pages on roman coinage, e.g. the formidable Roman Coins Database with more than 500 entries for roman early imperial coins. Additionally, Doug Smith's page on ancient coins has some info on roman coins from the early empire.