Regular banknotes, issued in "normal times" and made from paper are practically all rectangular and without holes. But there were a couple of times when people remembered that anything can be "money", if they just believe in it.
Below are some examples of holes in notes and odd shapes. These examples were chosen to fit the question as originally framed. ...
A real "Gold mark" it is not. Real leather it is, originally intended for shoe soles.
This is Notgeld or Ersatz-money, issued after the Great War during the period known as hyperinflation and was one of the last tries to combat the consequences of inflation on a local level. Although most of these were printed on fancy papers, intended for local ...
Although the coin is quite worn, you can clearly on the reverse the inscription S C, meaning senatus consulto. This confirms that it is a Roman coin and probably one from an early period.
Based on the size and colour, your coin could be a dupondius which was worth 2 as or 1/8 of a denarius. In the early imperial period, this buy you perhaps one to two loafs ...
They are specifically Spanish 2 Escudo Doubloons minted between 1651 to 1773, or modern replicas - as they are identical, it would seem to suggest the latter. This Amazon seller 🕑 appears to have identical coins.
Image from https://www.eaglegames.net/Empires-Age-of-Discovery-Metal-Coins-p/101617.htm, used with permission of Eagle Games.
The usual method was with a hammer and a cold chisel. A large stone would suffice as an anvil. Coins are fairly small and thin, and the silver coins of the period were quite soft, as you can see from the wear on the example in your picture.
A blacksmith would be able to do this easily, as would almost anyone with basic metal-working skills and tools. ...
From the portrait, it looks to be a William I (William the Conqueror) "bonnet-type" silver penny.
However, you should also be aware that there are a lot of replica and reproduction issues of that particular coin.
As noted by @SimonB and @richardb in the comments, your coin appears to have the letters 'WRL' stamped on the obverse, which indicates that it is ...
It appears that the author, Margrit Kennedy, has either misunderstood or is deliberately misrepresenting the situation with Medieval bracteates.
Medieval bracteates (a form of pennies) are pieces of thin silver sheet embossed on one side. They typically have a diameter of between 22 and 45 mm. Because it is struck on only one side, the coin image appears in ...
Edit 2: If symbols and punches count as a means of communicating a coin's denomination, then this article by Koray Konuk, which was published in the Oxford Handbook of Greek and Roman coinage, would suggest that Lydian coins (i.e. the very first coins to ever use gold and silver according to Herodotus), which were minted circa 700 BCE to 550 BCE, had a ...
Here are a couple of square banknotes. The first one is also possibly unique in that it is one-sided.
"A small square shaped and rather scarce very good or much better banknote from Argentina. This is the 1st April 1867 one peso banknote issued by the Province of Buenos Ayres in Argentina. The note is of white paper with black printing." Source: picclick....
The inscriptions are (note that the S's are backwards):
Obverse (bear) - MONETA BERNENSIS (coinage of Bern)
Reverse (cross) - SANCTVS VINCENCIVS (Saint Vincent)
(The style of lettering can be compared, with, for example, a 14th-century brooch shown here on page 2, also with reversed S's and closed-up E's; with a 1497 inscription showing A's with the same ...
Note As @Volker Siegel said in the comments:
Do not try to clean them any further. Dirt and patina may reduce the
value somewhat, but traces of cleaning much more so.
I am certain this is a Spanish Real.
The real (meaning: "royal", plural: reales) was a unit of currency in Spain for several centuries after the mid-14th century. It underwent several ...
According to Jamila's Coins and Notes Collection blog, this is a modern iraqi coin from 1981. Here's a photo showing the front and back of that coin:
I've found it on on Jamila's blog, with an overview of iraqi coins. There, it's described as follows:
IRAQ - 10 Fils (Year 1981) (AH 1401)
Description: Under President:
Saddam Hussein (16 Jul 1979 - ...
It looks to be a version of a coin representing the Armenian king Tigranes II, with the Tyche of Antioch on the flip side. You can read about the history at the above wiki link.
Above image from The Melammu Project
Some more versions can be seen here
An article here actually theorizes that the star symbol on the crown may represent Halley's Comet.
It's a modern or relatively recent fake or fantasy coin, a novelty item of no value.
It is too round
It looks cast rather than struck
The design is too crude
It looks like it has black paint rubbed into it.
The greek lettering is ungrammatical.
It doesn't have the patina and wear pattern normally found on old coins.
There are many very similar or near-...
The first coin doesn't have much detail to go by.
But the second coin looks like it might have two soldiers standing with banners. Some Roman coins have that. Here's an example of a coin with Constantine I, c 334-335:
There are a couple of pages with coin cleaning tips on the web. In short: toothpicks, toothbrushes, soap, and (distilled) water; gently, with ...
The top picture is quite obviously a coin with a crude depiction of a seventh century "byzantine" emperor holding a globe with a cross on top. The early Muslim coins issued in former Roman territories were obviously based on Roman coins which the subject people were more familiar with, or else made with reused and modified Roman coin dies.
In 636 the ...
What you're seeing is the effect of the US Coinage Acts of 1853 and 1873, and the Bland Allison Act of 1878.
The silver dollar was based on the weight established by law under the Coinage Act of 1837. Under the act, coin sizes are based on assumed weight ratio of 16:1 (i.e. 16 oz silver is 1 oz gold). The weight of a silver dollar was set to be 412....
I have to agree with the comments. Most coins have always been round but maybe some Asian countries have had more non-round coins than other areas of the world. But it also depends on what you want to call a coin. There's Chinese spade money from 650 BC for example. India has a long history of square coins which are definitely coins.
This one is from 450 - ...
This coin is from Nepal and belongs to King of Nepal Sri Mahendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev and came in existence in Vikrami Samvat 2012 (Gregorian calendar-1955).
letters inscribed are:-
श्री महेन्द्र वीर विक्रम शाहदेव 2012.
i.e in English Sri Mahendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev 2012
Coin Sri Mahendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev, Vikrami Samvat 2012 (Gregorian calendar-...
"The first coins in India were minted around the 6th century BC by the Mahajanapadas of the Indo-Gangetic Plain, and certainly before the invasion of Alexander the Great in the 4th century BC. " Wikipedia
"Earliest Kushan coinage is generally attributed to Vima Kadphises. " Quora
"The first documented coinage is deemed to start with 'Punch Marked' coins ...
It is known that coins were minted in the first years, if not the first, of the new Emperor's reign. The populace often learned of a new Roman Emperor when coins appeared with the new Emperor's portrait. Some of the emperors who ruled only for a short time made sure that a coin bore their image; Quietus, for example, ruled only part of the Roman Empire from ...
After trawling through hundreds of coin images, I am reasonably sure that the emperor depicted in the coin in the question is Antoninus Pius (138 - 161 AD).
In the compilation below, the top left coin is the one in the question. The other coins are all confirmed as Antoninus Pius.
This looks like a Chinese square hole coin; the four characters identify its type and era. They are read in the order North-South-East-West, and reads:
咸豐通寶 Xianfeng Tongbao
This page has a lot of information on how to interpret those characters. The first two characters give the era, and the second two the type of coin.
This coin is a 通寶 tongbao.
Ancient Greece and the Hellenistic period
Coins in Classical Greece did not bear the image of rulers so there was no 'personal' motive to recall coins issued during the time of previous rulers. Coins featured images of gods, goddesses, animals and objects. The most widely distributed coinage in Classical Greece was that of Athens, which was
uniform to ...
The tradition is both older and newer than this. As an example, in 1602 Samuel Rowlands produced a pamphlet poem Tis Merrie when Gossips meete, which included the verse
Well wot you Besse, to whom Ile drinke too now,
Sure as I liue, vnto your sister Sisse,
And to the Youth that did the Angell bow.
And sent it for a token : trueth halfe ...
On British coinage:
The title Fidei Defensor abbreviated to F.D. (Defender of the Faith)
occurs for the first time on the British coinage under George I.
The earliest example is from the very beginning of his reign, in 1714.
"1 Guinea - George I 1st portrait". Source: Numista
The inscription appears frequently on coins from here on. For example, ...
The hexagram already appeared on the historical flag of nigeria (british colony and protectorate). Both coins date from that time, since Nigeria got independent in 1960. So, i think the question should be why the hexagram was associated with Nigeria during the epoch before 1960. Extensive information regarding this question can be found at http://www....
It is a Caesar denarius minted in 49 BC. This was the first type of coin Caesar had minted. The obverse is an elephant trampling a snake with CAESAR beneath. The reverse features the fetishes of the Pontifex Maximus, a title Caesar held at the time. See Roman Republican Coinage by Michael Crawford.
Licence: Creative Commons Share Alike Attribution 2.5 - ...