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This is at least partly correct. Egyptian titulaturs for pharaoh and Egyptian royal titulary changed significantly over time and between dynasties. What is remarkable in this context is that 'pharaoh' only became used to represent 'king' in the middle of the second millennium BCE. In inscriptions it was often only to be read as 'Horus did this and that', ...


Rabbi Joshua Berman is an Orthodox Jew. Among other things, this means that he takes as a matter of faith that the entire Torah, including Exodus, was literally handed to Moses at once by God. Verbatim. If one takes that as a given, then inconsistencies in language usage constitute a genuine logical problem that one may be forced to devote no small amount of ...


As pointed out by Karl Marx, technological and scientific progress will lead to economic and social changes, and economic and social changes will lead to political changes. Technological and scientific progress, and accompanying changes in production and labour relations, have been much faster in the last few hundred years than in antiquity.


In general, they didn't. First off, some terms. Technically a nation is a coherent culture of people, so polyglot empires like Rome's or the Ottoman's don't qualify. It would probably be better to talk about Governments, or Sovereign States. Let's look at Rome. It was around from 509BC to 1453AD by some accounts. However, it wasn't at all the same government ...

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