51

Based on this page from the French School for Advanced Studies in the Social Sciences, it appears that the neighbouring Balsesmes merged into La Haye-Descartes in 1966, before the combined commune was renamed to Descartes the next year. In 1962, the two communes had remarkably similar population levels of 1,679 and 1,689. With a combined population of 4,267 ...


48

This was primarily due to the 1557 influenza pandemic, which returned in 1558 and perhaps lingered for another year or two. This was a global pandemic and other areas of Europe were also severely hit. Making things even worse was that the influenza was preceded by plague, typhus, measles (hat tip: Rusl) and famine in some regions of Europe. Influenza ...


37

There were two major, interrelated events that caused this population boom in the 1970s. The first was the discovery of oil on Alaska's North Slope at Prudhoe Bay and elsewhere in 1968 and 1969. The second was the raising of oil prices by OPEC in 1973 and 1979. Both sets of developments resulted in the rapid growth of oil production in Alaska, and its ...


36

Data published by the demographer Carl Haub and Dr. Toshiko Kaneda in How Many People Have Ever Lived on Earth? on the Population Reference Bureau (PRB) website suggests that the 50 billionth person would have been born around 130 AD / CE. This can be seen by looking at the column 'Number Ever Born' in the table below: Image source: Population Reference ...


32

The population of Latvia today is estimated at 1.9m, slightly below the 1.95m census population of 1935 and substantially below an estimated pre-WWI population of around 2.5m in 1914. It peaked at a high of around 2.7m in 1989 and has been falling steadily since (WP, citing the Latvian statistical bureau). The 1914 figure is before independence from the ...


29

The US state of West Virginia (about 62,000 square kilometers), reached its recorded population peak of a hair over 2 million people at the 1950 census. It declined immediately thereafter, and has spent the time since bumping around 1.8 million mark. Their 2020 Census result showed a 3.48% decline from 2010, back down to a hair over their 1990 level. The ...


29

East Germany (the former GDR) had a steady population decline since the 1950s which continues until today. They started with about 18.5 million in 1950 and had about 16.5 million in 1989. In 2015 the area had about 14 to 14.5 million inhabitants (own calculation, assuming 1.5 to 2 million inhabitants in the Eastern part of Berlin and neglecting smaller ...


28

University of Alaska, Anchorage published a study into People and Economy of Alaska, which can be viewed here. From that source, I'd say there are following reasons for their population boom: Discovery of Oil As Tom has already mentioned, Oil was discovered in 1968 in Prudhoe Bay oilfields. Alaska collected $55 billion in oil revenues through 2001, with the ...


28

According to this article the ratio rose from 1.10 to about 1.54 (ratio of men/women fell from 0.91 to about 0.65) between 1941 and 1946 in the draft-age group (people born around 1887 to 1927), which was the most affected by the war losses. Other age groups were less affected, so I'd say that the overall ratio would be around 1.3-1.25 (0.75-0.8 men/women)....


27

The most fundamental reason with respect to other parts of tropical Asia is the earlier adoption of wet rice cultivation in Java. Grigg points out that the only places in Asia that had greater population densities in the late 19th century were China and Japan. Wet rice is just an amazingly productive form of agriculture, especially by traditional standards, ...


21

Overview Roll-up wiki digest of answers. All answers listed are taken from (non-wiki) answers below. If you want to read details on any one answer, look for it in its own detailed answer. Please add any new qualifying areas from positively-voted answers to this list. Latvia (65,000 km²) Went from about 1.95 million in 1935 up to 2.7 million in 1989 back ...


18

One answer that hasn't been mentioned yet is Sakhalin. (I agree that West Virginia and East Germany are great answers, by the way, and upvoted both of those ) At 500,000 today, Sakhalin appears to have had a population of at least 575,000 during WWII (400,000 Japanese and at least 175,000 Koreans). It's over 70,000 sq km and is quite well-defined, being an ...


17

The Soviet population in 1941 was 196,716,000. In 1946, it was 170,548,000.[1] That's a difference of 26,168,000 people. According to a study published by the Russian Academy of Science[2], there were 12,300,000 births and 11,900,000 natural deaths during war, so the populational decrease must be entirely attributed to war deaths. Considering 400,000 births ...


16

Because people are quibbling in comments over the meaning of "overpopulation", it might suggest that this question is broad or unclear. So let's look at it from a different angle. In the 1960's, Dr. John Calhoun, working at NIH, conducted his famous (some would say infamous) "mouse utopia experiment". Mice were placed in an enclosure (named "Universe 25") ...


15

The answer is related to the map you posted about rainfall. The population of the eastern third of the continental US is denser because of settlement patterns that reflect the local availability of water resources. This quirk of human geography occurs because of the need for irrigation. As detailed by Harvey Leifert in "Dividing line: The past, present and ...


13

Maybe not Joseph Tainter argues, in Archeology of Overshoot and Collapse, that so far there is no evidence of a Malthusian catastrophe. Whether you follow Tainter in this assertion will in part depend on how wide or narrow your definition of overpopulation is. Problem with definition According to Malthus, population grows exponentially while food production ...


13

Using the delta areas as proxies for the entire river valley systems: The area of the Ganges delta (about 59,000 km2) is nearly 4 times as large as Mesopotamia (about 15,000 km2), and 3 times as large as the Nile river delta (about 19,000 km2). Additionally: Once wet-rice cultivation with paddies is developed, rice provides nearly twice the calories per ...


13

Most empires (Achaemenid, Roman, Eastern Roman, Osman, Austro-Hungarian and Russian) had very diverse populations and were quite sustainable. Even if you count Eastern Roman empire separately from the Western one, the Western one existed for more than 400 years, and the Eastern one for 1000 years after that. Actually many European countries have very ...


12

While Peter Turchin has overstated the case, it is most likely that this was usually true. Infant mortality rates were very high until they started to decline in the early decades of the 20th century (especially in Europe and the US). To this can be added the generally high death rate from lack of effective medical care and frequent epidemics. These factors ...


12

Russian urbanization in the Soviet and post-Soviet eras (2012), p. 22, states: However, the GPW rapidically reshaped the population dynamics of the region. Even as late as 1959, the populations of St Petersburg and nearby cities remained far below their pre-war levels, and the Moscow conurbation had shrunk back towards its centre. In constrast, ...


12

As noted in the discussion on the question, there are two kinds of overpopulation which I'll call "chronic" and "acute". Chronic overpopulation, where the full production capacity of agriculture in normal times is insufficient to feed the population, is sometimes the only case people consider. But acute overpopulation, where the population "only" starves in ...


11

The dissolution of the Soviet Union, which led to economic upheaval & hardship as well as a significant amount of emigration. From p. 9 of this 2012 conference paper, found by Googling "Kazakhstan population decline 1990s": The dissolution of the Soviet Union led to a dramatic decline in the economic output and living standards throughout the ...


10

According to Colin McEvedy and Richard Jones, at the beginning of the Christian era it was about 2 million, and in the next 2 pairs of centuries it geometrically rose to about 2 2/3 million, then nearly 4. It had climbed to a high of about five and a quarter million around the time of Muhammad, a high-water mark that was receded from a bit to about 4.5 ...


10

The book The Medieval Village, by George Coulton, has some information which seems to provide a basis for calculating an answer to your question. According to the first column of information, in the year 800 there were an estimated 100 Villages in this region. These contained an estimated 20,000 individuals, so we can calculate your average village size of ...


9

India's first (& most reliable) census was from 1867 to 1871, known as the 1872 Census of India. The Government of India confirms this in their census history. So, there is no data prior to this census, hence all numbers below are estimates. In terms of estimated population, circa 1800 to 1850, The Cambridge Economic History of India, Volume 2, c.1751–c....


9

Population estimates A number of estimates have been made for the population of ancient Egypt but, as the article The people of ancient Egypt says, Egyptologists tend to dodge the issue of population numbers, as there are no statistics available and all such numbers are based on more or less educated guesswork. The British Museum Dictionary of ...


9

There are no really reliable estimates for the population of Mycenaean Greece, although scholars have supplied some (more or less educated) guesses. On the more conservative end of the scale, Stanford's Mitsotakis professor Josiah Ober has written that: The population of Hellas in the Mycenaen period (including Thessaly and Crete) was somewhere in the ...


9

I have seen similar patterns in other parishes where I've been researching my own ancestors. A number of factors were at play, and it is difficult to be specific for a particular parish, however, the most likely reasons for Eversholt appear to be: There was a huge migration of population from rural areas to urban areas over that period. A series of ...


9

Easter Island is one example. From the Wikipedia article: It is believed that Easter Island's Polynesian inhabitants arrived on Easter Island sometime between 700 and 1100 CE. They created a thriving and industrious culture as evidenced by the island's numerous enormous stone moai and other artifacts. However, human activity, the introduction of ...


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