78

In 1606, people didn't have pantone guidelines to keep colours consistent - nor did it matter. Heraldry only has a limited number of colors. Variations on blue exist but are not standard, so any blue could be used. It just so happened that the English were already using a blue, in the Blue Ensign being used by English ships. Wikipedia even suggests its ...


51

Edinburgh Castle's tourist attraction, the One O'Clock Gun, originated as an audible version of the Nelson Monument time ball. The Nelson time ball has dropped at 1:00 pm ever since it was installed in 1853. Accordingly, the One O'Clock Gun also fired at 1:00 pm. Anything else would have been potentially confusing. Time balls were important for maritime ...


29

To answer this question, you first have to answer another complex question: Who are the English? This question turns out to be quite complex indeed because to this day scholars are unsure whether to subscribe to an invasionist/migrationist view or a diffusionist view in regards to the Britons, the Celtic people of Great Britain (excluding Scotland) which ...


25

I agree with Kobunite, but by a different route. I can't make out the cap badge well enough to identify it positively, but the collar badges are either Royal Artillery or Royal Engineers, which are quite similar. The cap badge definitely isn't Royal Artillery, which looks like this: So he's Royal Engineers. The uniform is that of a commissioned officer: the ...


24

England lies in the warmest, richest, and most fertile parts of the British Isles. These are modern population figures, but they are indicative of past relative strengths: England, 55 million; Ireland (counting northern Ireland), 6 million; Scotland, 5 million, Wales, 3 million. Frankly, I was surprised at the disparity between England, and all others (14 ...


22

Weaving generally had been a fairly common occupation during the medieval period in Scotland. The skills were taught to apprentices, who may or may not have been related to the master weaver. This remained the normal way of teaching skilled trades right up to the industrial revolution. In 1587 the Scottish Parliament passed an Act intended to encourage ...


21

The Colonel was of Scottish descent and served with the King's Own Scottish Borderers in WW I (according to Wikipedia). The trouser pattern in question could well exhibit the unit's (mainly green-and-blue) tartan. Also, the cape he wears appears very similar to those exhibited at the King's Own Scottish Borderers Regimental Museum's web site. And as for him ...


18

The obvious reason for Scotland being "conquered" by England is that King James VI of Scotland was heir to the English throne, and upon the death of Elizabeth I of England (and Ireland) found himself ruling both kingdoms. The larger English population and stronger economy then led to the English language gradually pushing aside both Scottish Gaelic and ...


14

Scotland joining England and Wales: The Darien Disaster was an ill-fated attempt to build a roadway across Central America by the Scots. It was backed by most of the Scottish nobility, and its failure nearly bankrupted them. This in turn, nearly bankrupted the Scottish Treasury. This lead to the Union of the Parliaments between Scotland and England in 1707. ...


14

Short Answer Indirect evidence suggests that it is certainly possible that there were some veterans of Falkirk (1298) who fought at Bannockburn (1314). Men could be enlisted on both sides up to the age of 60; thus, for example, a 20-year-old at Falkirk would have been 36 at Bannockburn, well within the enlistment age limit. Whether they numbered just a ...


13

I am fairly sure this is Mary's cipher (here are similar specimen). It's a fairly simple encryption scheme and was indeed broken by her contemporary enemies in the 16th century.


12

Starting with the regiment - looking at the cap badge (see below), I believe that he was in the Corps of Royal Engineers. The uniform appears to be that of a commissioned officer, however the exact rank will be difficult as the British Army wears rank insignia on the shoulder boards and sleeves.


11

It is called a gorget. In certain military traditions it served as a mark of leadership. I cannot cite my source, but I recall reading a speculation that it may have evolved from the full cuirass that was worn by knights in antiquity. With the advent of gunpowder, such body armor was no longer of practical use, but the gorget served as a reminder of the old ...


9

The motivating factors that led to the Highland Clearances are manifold and complex. The roots of the clearances lay mainly in the aftermath of the 1745 Jacobite rebellion in which the highland levies formed the backbone of Charles Edward Stuart's army. That rebellion ended with the slaughter of the Jacobite army on Culloden moor. The clearances have ...


8

It seems most likely to me it would have been a local Sept leader, or at best a Earl or Laird, who got run out of his territories in the course of typical Scottish infighting. Over generations of retelling this guy could easily have been eventually promoted all the way to a "King", as it makes the family's origins sound more respectable. You would be ...


7

Primarily, in Eastern England and Western Scotland. In particular, what you might be looking for is the Danelaw. Technically, it refers to the parts of England (roughly one-third) where Scandinavian (Danish) laws applied. In geographic terms, this is a huge swathe of Northern and Eastern England conquered by invading Vikings during the 9th century. England ...


7

Not all Scots ran around in kilts - that is very much a Highland tradition. The KOSB being borderers and lowlanders in general did not see the kilt as part of their own tradition, and thus Tartan Trews were worn - and looked very sharp if I may say so. The pipers of the regiment did wear the Royal Stewart in a Kilt, bit other ranks wore Leslie Tartan Trews ...


7

I recently looked at this question again, and thought it might be another example of the colorization process being inaccurate. I thought to find other copies of this map (or other works at least by the same individual) showing the 'right' colors to prove a simple color error. What I thought would be simple became very not simple. Here's what I have found. ...


7

Indian here means "Red Indian" or Native American. His readers would be aware that Indians used bows and arrows so the writer is mocking the duelists' choice of weapons by calling it "Indian artillery" (and of course mocking the primitiveness of Indians). It's just a joke.


7

Short Answer The reference to "that famous east window on which Henrietta Maria had once cut her name with a diamond" seems most likely to be a conflation of two or more of various events and artefacts connected to Henrietta Maria and / or her husband, Charles I. These events / artefacts involve Henrietta Maria breaking a window, Charles I ...


6

Personally, I would discard it as an unfounded rumour. It's right up there with the "Hitler’s granny came from Dundee" rumour that you can still hear repeated around the city. Dundee actually was hit by a Luftwaffe raid on 5 November 1940. The raid was probably intended to be an attack on the Tay Bridge, which would have been considered a high value target ...


6

The Library of Congress website has archived a great amount of letters, experimental notes, and general notebooks of Graham Bell. There, using the right search terms, I came up with a whole list of articles related to the tetrahedral kite. Other notes of Graham Bell are available as well, but I haven't researched those.


6

Ormond Castle was named after the hill it stood on, Ormond Hill. It is now impossible to trace how the name came about, but the Scottish antiquarian John Pinkerton says it was apparently an ancient moot-hill. Incidentally these were known in Scottish Gaelic as tom a' mhòid, which may provide a clue as to Ormond's etymology. [I]t appears that Ormond was a ...


6

No, nothing is missing or overlooked in "trew Law" regarding apostolic succession. The text simply does not provide what this unreferenced part of the Wikipedia article claims. What James writes is that the kings are sent to their people by god, and the link to apostles is only found in Paul being used as witness 'that people should obey their ...


5

The word 'Galldachd' for the lowlands arises from the Old Irish 'gall' for 'foreigner' which came in turn from the Latin word 'gallus' for a Gaul. http://www.wordsense.eu/Gall/#Old_Irish. The Gaels called (indeed call) their linguistically and culturally Gaelic part of Scotland the Gàidhealtachd, usually translated as 'Gaeldom'. This cultural way of ...


5

Others South Sudan passed a similar referendum in 2008. South Sudan has a population of 8 million +, compared to Scotland's population of 5 million +. Algeria passed a similar referendum in 1962. The current population is about 38 million, I don't have the numbers for the 1962. Here is a list of independence referendums starting in 1848 with the former US ...


5

In the particular case of John Duns Scotus, we know relatively little about him apart from his work, and the fact that he was a friar. As a member of a religious order and an academic, he would probably have lived mainly in religious houses and so been protected from most overt hostility. More generally, there were a lot of people who could be described as "...


5

The Kingdom of Makuria (Nubian peoples, think south of Egypt) was a Christian kingdom and I would suggest that is the likely homeland for Black people who made it into medieval Europe. It's heavily neglected (crusaders and Christianity tends to be portrayed solely as 'white', but that is heavily incorrect as three Christian kingdoms existed to the south of ...


5

Yes, that's roughly what he's saying. It is very difficult, if not impossible, to run a unified country, or even a unified armed resistance, between two entities separated by hostile territory. Here's a map from the beginning of the 7th Century that is politically coded, that might make this easier to see. The land in the hands of Celtic kings is shown in ...


5

BBC According to the British Broadcasting Company Pope Adrian IV's Papal Bull in 1155 led the way to England's first colony. BBC The first proper colonisation took place not in the West or East Indies, nor in America, but in Ireland. Ireland was the first English colony. In 1155, Pope Adrian IV published a Papal Bull Laudabiliter giving Henry II authority ...


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