89

Do you know how many continents there are on Earth? (I don't!) Is Europe a separate continent from Asia? Is Australia the biggest island or the smallest continent? Is Antarctica an ice-locked archipelago or a continent? Are the Americas one continent or two? (All of those questions can be answered reasonably either way.) The separation of Europe from Asia ...


88

The answer is probably Yes, some Greeks had visited the peak around 2900 meters above the sea level. Average people who are fit can easily do it, at least from one side. But it's important to realize that they didn't expect to meet gods there. According to the Greek teaching, the divine and human spheres only overlapped but they were not identical. One ...


58

Location of Conflicts This is because fundamentally, the Cold War was about which ideology would dominate the world. Both sides wanted to export their ideology, or perhaps more importantly, stop each other from doing so. To this end they were willing to fund, supply, and equip forces across the globe with the right (or ostensibly right enough) ideological ...


41

As fate would have it, the first known globe of the Earth was created in 1492, the same year as Columbus' voyage. As such, it is also the only known globe to depict the area between Western Europe and East Asia prior to the discovery of the New World. None of the earlier flat maps I could find made any kind of legitimate effort at depicting this area. The ...


39

It is impossible to ascertain for sure. Eleven gods of the Greek major pantheon all lived in various named corners of the mountain. Even Zeus resided on only the second-highest of the many peaks, with the highest, Mytikas, reserved as their meeting pace.) This suggests that the ancient Greeks were familiar with the terrain of the mountain. The summit ...


36

During the early stages of the Turkish War of Independence, Kemal commanded two army corps: One in Ankara and one in Erzurum. At first Erzurum was Kemal's base of operations, but on 27 December, 1919 he moved his Representative Committee to Ankara to be closer to Istanbul. Ankara also had a railway and being roughly at the center of Turkey made more sense ...


31

I was hoping that someone with better resources on Aztec mythology would speak up, but in absence of that, I'll tell you what I found looking into this online. Chief among it was that I could find nothing whatsoever backing up that interpretation of the five flowers, and lots saying it meant completely different things. Given that, my suspicion is that this ...


28

Awareness of (and habitation alongside) underground rivers dates back many thousands of years. Cave systems with rivers, providing a ready supply of one life's essentials, were shelters from both the elements and from predators / enemies. Some, such as the Devetashka cave in Bulgaria, were inhabited for thousands of years. Below are a few examples. MIDDLE &...


28

Firstly, it is important to be aware that our understanding of the civilisations and culture of Pre-Columbian America is far from complete. Secondly, I don't propose to attempt to cover every civilisation, so this will - at best - be only a partial answer. However, with those caveats: As far as I am aware, we have no evidence that any pre-Columbian ...


28

There always is a trade-off when occupying someone else's territory: the resources you can extract plus any strategic value versus the resources you need to invest to maintain control. The wooded areas north of the steppe belt were relatively hard to control for the Mongols - e.g. even the 1207 campaign against the "Forest Peoples" had somewhat ...


27

The first ship to successfully circumnavigate the world was the Nao Victoria. It was originally part of Magellan's fleet. All of the other ships (the Trinidad, the San Antonio, Concepción and the Santiago), Ferdinand Magellan himself, and most of the sailors of the Victoria had already either been killed, or turned back before this. When the Victoria finally ...


22

Europeans, perhaps not, someone in the old world, yes. Al-Biruni (973–1050) lived in Khwarezm (modern Uzbekistan). Among other works in mathematics, astronomy, physics, mineralogy, history and geography, he calculated the circumference of Earth with a precision higher than his predecessors, and made some precise maps of known lands. In his work Codex ...


21

The Prime Meridian we use now was the one the British chose, since it went through Greenwich Observatory near London. France had their own where Paris was 0 degrees, the US had one. When the situation of each nation having its own longitude got too annoying, they picked one. England's won out because of 2 factors: 1) England was the largest power at the ...


20

Metohija Ottoman Empire (until 1912) Montenegro (1912-1915) Austria-Hungary (1915-1918) Serbia (1918) Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (1918–1929) Kingdom of Yugoslavia (1929–1941) Italian protectorate of Albania (1941-1943) Nazi Germany (1943-1944) Serbia (1944-1946) Yugoslavia (1946-1991) Federal Republic of Yugoslavia(1992-2003) Serbia and ...


20

I found the answer. In 1790, no error was found. Roy [who headed the survery] probably did not know that in 1785 Maskelyne [who was confident of the coordinates of Greenwich] had equipped his assistant Joseph Lindley with a number of watches and sent him on a secret "chronometer run" to Paris, to determine the time difference between the capitals. ...


19

More or less, it's something like this: Not all the details are correct, but that is to be expected for an area that is known mostly by hearsay. The Malay Peninsula and Sumatra are conflated; Indochina and Borneo, and possibly the Philippines as well, seem to be conflated; The Gulf of Thailand is clearly seen, but is conflated with the South China Sea; ...


18

That seems highly unlikely. The invention of agriculture in the Fertile Crescent was roughly 10,000 years ago, principally in the Tigris-Euphrates river valley system. The people living there when the historical record opened spoke a language unrelated to any modern language. Kurdish is an Indo-European language, of the Western Iranian branch. About 5,500 ...


16

I think the Carpathian Ruthenia area (the little triangle on the "end" of Czechoslovakia after the end of WW1) gives us five bona fide separate national entities and more if pseudo-states (such as your Fiume) and other periods of loose or brief control are allowed. up to 1918 Austria-Hungary 1918 Hungary 1918 West Ukraine 1918-1939 ...


16

Typically it refers to a river, and "lower" is down-river (closer to the coast), while "upper" is up-river (further inland). This is because the land at the mouth of a river is lower (in altitude) than the land near its source. Basic physics here. This goes for most instances where you see an upper/lower distinction. For your examples, Egypt is based on ...


16

The Angles, along with the Saxons and the Jutes, probably started arriving in Britain around the middle of the 5th century, some 50 years after Rome abandoned its northern-most province. They would have mostly seen a landscape with many features of the late Roman period (described below) in a state of decay, alongside Celtic Iron Age dwellings. By the time ...


16

This question made me scratch my head for a minute. I think there may be some false premises in the OP's question that have been overlooked. I will paraphrase the Q: "Why didn't they aim nuclear weapons at each other at the places where their landmasses were the closest?" If that's a correct read of the question then it seems to assume a few things: 1. ...


15

Francis Celora in Delta as a Geographical Concept in Greek literature (login required, 100 free articles / month) notes: That a stranger who arrives at the mouth of the Nile in times when maps were almost scholars' curiosities can visualize the shape of the Delta region and produce the almost witty comparison with a letter of the alphabet is an achievement. ...


13

The book "Longitude" discusses this, and says the international standardization of the prime meridian arose mainly due to the publication of practical astronomical tables which used the Greenwich meridian. As ships started using these tables for navigation (as opposed to dead reckoning), they naturally switched to using the Greenwich meridian if they hadn't ...


11

The reason the Cold War resulted in conflicts across the world and not just between the US and USSR's closest points is because neither side wanted to actually enter into open hostilities, because that would definitely result in total destruction of both sides. The point of the nuclear buildup wasn't to use the weapons, but to prevent the other guy from ...


11

The river Reka (literally: river) in Slovenia goes underground in the caves of Škocjan (San Canziano, St. Kanzian) and comes out as Timavo some 35 km further west. According to the Wiki page linked above, the caves of Škocjan have been inhabited since the middle stone ages. IIRC not only were Reka and Timavo known by ancient Romans and Greeks, but also ...


10

The earliest available evidence of 'Africa' applied to the whole continent (including Egypt) would appear to date from the work of 16th century map makers. Abraham Ortelius (1527-98) produced this map in 1584: Source: Evolution of the Map of Africa A map by Rumold Mercator comes just 3 years after Ortelius' but judging by the colouring, Madagascar is ...


9

Some colonies, including Virginia, claimed all land to their west. Other states, including Pennsylvania, had defined western boundaries: Ever since the proprietary grant to William Penn in 1681, the border between Virginia and Pennsylvania had depended upon defining the eastern edge of Pennsylvania. Once that eastern edge of Pennsylvania was ...


9

(original image by Wikimedia Commons user San Jose) If you look at a topographic map of Europe, the reason should be self-evident: the easiest land route from northern/western Europe passes through the gap between the Alps and the Carpathians. Hungary sits in the middle of that gap; historic Hungary occupied effectively all of it. This same geography ...


9

It is certainly true that many of the foundations for later civilisations, like the development of agriculture, the development of writing, and even an invention of the wheel, can be traced to The Fertile Crescent. It is likely that many of the ancestors of modern Kurds came from the the Fertile Crescent. It is quite possible that "The land of Karda", ...


9

Satellites and modern technologies are irrelevant here. If you have a map of the country, break it into sufficiently small pieces (so that each piece is approximately flat, and the scale of the map is approximately constant on each piece), then put a sufficiently fine square grid on each piece and count the squares. Or use the simple device called a ...


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