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When authoritarian regimes fall or 'transition' into something less authoritarian it is typically due to either external forces (invasion or threat of invasion) or economic stress. There are of course many examples of regimes falling due to an actual invasion, but there is one example of an absolute monarchy (Kuwait) which became a constitutional monarchy ...


What's the line between "overthrown" and "resigned"? If you think his designated successors were chomping at the bit and pressuring him to quit, Diocletian may be a good example.


Both Japan and China have long had people of different religious convictions (Buddhism and Shintoism in Japan, Buddhism and Daoism in China). But neither of these religions insists on "You shall have no other gods beside me", so they do not lead to the emergence of clearly distinguishable groups and therefore the effect on political stability is small. Edit:...


Most empires (Achaemenid, Roman, Eastern Roman, Osman, Austro-Hungarian and Russian) had very diverse populations and were quite sustainable. Even if you count Eastern Roman empire separately from the Western one, the Western one existed for more than 400 years, and the Eastern one for 1000 years after that. Actually many European countries have very ...


Switzerland consists of German-speaking and French-speaking populations, plus some smaller groups. Pretty stable for 500 years.

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