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Describes the administrative institution for a political state. The government is responsible for fundamental concerns of security, economic stability, public infrastructure, diplomacy amongst other state actors and variety of societal concerns.

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In Britain, what was the “Junior Service” in 1913?

I read a marriage notice from 1913, which noted that the father of the groom "has four sons abroad, three having served with distinction in the junior Service". (West Sussex Gazette, Thu 13 Feb 1913, ...
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252 views

What is the title of a medieval mayor?

In the medieval/renaissance era what is the title of a person who runs a city in his king's kingdom? Like he isn't the king but he serves him by running the city. I think they could be called a ...
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26 views

Guadalupe Victoria's headquarters

Mexico had a Provisional Government in 1823-1824, after the end of the First Mexican Empire. Guadalupe Victoria, a member of the governing triumvirate and the subsequent president, received an ...
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0answers
146 views

Has a small group ever made or attempted a false flag against a government?

I think it's common for governments to make false flags against small groups, but has it ever happened the other way? Has some small militia or some other civilian group made some attack and ...
2
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1answer
196 views

Did other American empires also fall to the Europeans?

Since forever, people have subjugated each other to demand labor or resources. A monarchic or centralized power that subjugates several other peoples is an empire. Half a dozen European empires ...
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1answer
187 views

Has bad government interventions in the economy ever resulted in unexpectedly good outcomes for the industry?

In the business world, people have talked about the role of serendipity or luck in a firm's success. Is there something similar for the success of a government's economic policy? More specifically, ...
4
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0answers
89 views

Is there a list of bills in the reign of George III & onwards?

I am researching the history of trackways, canals mines and railways from the reign of George 3rd through to the end of Queen Victoria’s reign. Is there a list of all bills presented to Parliament ...
6
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2answers
217 views

What was Rousseau' point in “The Social Contract ”?

What point was Rousseau trying to make in "The Social Contract"? I know that it has to do with a contract between the people. I have read The Social Contract. It is very hard for me to understand. I ...
3
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2answers
251 views

Typology and the cause of difference between European medieval kingship?

Western Medieval Catholic kings and nobility in Britain, France, Spain and Portugal, Italy, Germany and Austria share certain distinctive common features that can be summed under the term of vassalage ...
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1answer
221 views

Was Transylvania autonomous within Hungary before 1526?

Transylvania is presented in Romanian historiography in parallel with the other two "Principalities" with which it ended up united in the 20th century - Wallachia and Moldavia. These two had been ...
10
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1answer
229 views

Apart from Australia, has a serving head of government or state disappeared without trace?

In December 1967, then-serving prime minister of Australia, Harold Holt, disappeared while swimming at Cheviot Beach, Victoria. His body was never found, though an inquest held much later stated that ...
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3answers
276 views

Was the United States meant to be a confederation of states?

I read the Constitution, and, if I recall correctly, no members of the Federal government were to be elected by the common people according to the original documents. Governors, however, were elected ...
5
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1answer
243 views

How do totalitarian states/empires usually fall?

How do totalitarian states/empires usually fall? Are there cases or plausible where these states fall without it necessarily being invaded or face a rebellion? When i say fall, i mean the move from ...
2
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1answer
193 views

Who governed London during the Great Plague?

Im writing a story for a game and I want to try to make it as accurate as possible. To this end, I can't seem to find who governed London, England, during the time of the Great Plague. So who governed ...
9
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2answers
254 views

What kind of ID Number, if any, did the Soviets institute for all their citizens?

In the United States, every citizen has a social security number for income purposes. It's a 9-digit number. This began in 1935, though I was surprised to learn from wikipedia that until 1986, most ...
10
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1answer
541 views

What percent of the US Federal Budget was spent on WW2?

From 1941 Dec 7 to 1945 May 8, what percent of the US Federal Budget was spent on the war? I would like to compare this to today's military spending, which according to this paragraph in wikipedia, is ...
2
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2answers
131 views

What was the sentiment regarding government control of railroads in Gilded-Age America?

I know this is a bit of a broad question, but what did leading thinkers and the American public think about government control of railroads as they were coming into widespread use post-Reconstruction? ...
2
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3answers
198 views

Which lover of a Russian Empress obtained the highest rank?

There were numerous well-known male lovers of Russian Empresses, particularly those of Catherine the Great. Such a role often meant receiving sumptuous gifts such as beautiful apartments, the status ...
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1answer
89 views

In the governments of the Reconstruction South, were Blacks in government always under the control of Whites?

I believe that in most cases they were figureheads but were there any examples of an African-American leader who actually was at least partially effective in state government? EDIT: It is clear that ...
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2answers
1k views

Was there a time when a Senator was wheeled in from the hospital to cast a deciding vote not to do something?

I remember hearing a story about a Senator who cast the deciding vote not to impeach Andrew Johnson, even though he despised Andrew Johnson, because he didn't think Johnson was guilty and it would set ...
1
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1answer
151 views

Thought Crimes in History [closed]

Has there ever been anywhere at any point in history a law criminalizing certain thoughts? I mean a law that says that the thinking of certain thoughts is illegal. I don't mean a law that says that ...
6
votes
1answer
194 views

What were the ranks in the Army of Imperial Spain?

At the time of the Latin American wars of independence, the Imperial Spanish army employed men in ranks like Capitán (captain), Sargento (sergeant) and so on, between the King and the lowliest ...
23
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1answer
570 views

Do any churches continue to display length measures?

In 864, Charles the Bald issued what is today known as the Edict of Pistres. One of his demands was that copies of the standards of measurements (e.g. versions of a foot) were to be displayed on the ...
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1answer
116 views

Was Yertle the Turtle by Dr. Suess really banned? [closed]

Many say that Yertle the Turtle by Dr. Seuss was banned for reasons of early marxism. Is that true?
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3answers
362 views

Why and when did countries develop long names that include the form of government?

Every country has different names, for example “China” vs “People's Republic of China”. But when I look back into history I see that countries in the past only had one name. For example the ancient ...
3
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1answer
72 views

Why did PvdA and not KVP provide the prime minister in the Kabinet Drees-Van Schaik (1948-1951), despite KVP being the largest party?

In the Dutch General Election, 1948, the largest party was KVP with 32 seats. Second was PvdA with 27 seats. Normally the largest party provides the prime minister. Yet in the folowing KVP-PvdA-CHU-...
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2answers
79 views

What are some government expenditure reports from the Middle ages?

I'm curious to see how much money went where in the medieval governments of Europe, but I'm not even sure where to start looking.
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2answers
227 views

When the king was away, did their queens sign Acts of Parliament on their behalf?

I'm actually referring to a circumstance in the event that they are joint sovereigns. Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand of Aragon, Mary I of England and Philip II of Spain, and William III and Mary II ...
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2answers
600 views

The allure of totalitarianism/ communism/ fascism [closed]

In the 1930s there was a rise of totalitarianism whether fascism or communism such as Hitler's Germany, Mussolini's Italy, and Stalin's Soviet Union What would've been the allure of totalitarianism ...
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2answers
91 views

Which immigrants became elected officials in an acquired language? [closed]

With some exceptions, candidates up for election are usually natural born citizens that are native speakers of the government's language. With the exception of the first generation of leaders in ...
1
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1answer
53 views

Who accompanied Canónigo Fernández to Mexico City in 1822?

After Iturbide became President of an independent Mexico, the Canónigo Don Agustín Fernández de San Vicente was sent to Alta California to support the transition from Spanish rule and to relieve the ...
4
votes
2answers
401 views

In multimember constituencies of the House of Commons, how many votes did each voter have?

From the 1200s until the 1900s, seats in the Commons were elected in multimember -- primarily two-member -- constituencies. How many votes did enfranchised voters get in these elections? Did the ...
8
votes
1answer
183 views

What was the voting mechanism in early elections to the Commons?

From the 1200s in England, counties and towns sent two representatives to Parliament. Sheriffs ran the local elections, in which voters were enfranchised by being freeholders or potwallopers. ...
6
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2answers
112 views

Were UK Parliamentary constituencies ever altered before 1832?

Seats in the House of Commons orginally represented boroughs and towns. The Parliamentary Boundaries Act 1832 altered the district map by eliminating some boroughs and changing the number of seats in ...
5
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0answers
213 views

What was the process by which the modern border control system developed? [duplicate]

I know that today, if I take a cruise of the Mediterranean, then each time the boat stops in a new country, and I wish to go ashore and see the sites, that I will need to have appropriate ...
4
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3answers
973 views

Why did Franklin Roosevelt promote Nazi sympathizer/eugenicist Frederick Osborn to high levels of office?

Many civil rights leaders alleged that, even after the revelation of genocide in World War II, eugenic influences remained strong in the United States because of Osborn and others of the Population ...
7
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1answer
164 views

Were there any elections in the First French Empire?

I know Napoleon's senate was appointed, but what about the lower house? Were there political factions like in the first republic?
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2answers
233 views

How were the prime ministers of Japan selected during the Taisho era?

During the Taisho era in Japan, how was the Prime Minister selected? Were they appointed by the Emperor? elected by the Diet? chosen by the Privy Council? I'm finding lots of information on how ...
6
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4answers
427 views

Has there ever been a war between members of a personal union?

A personal union occurs when two otherwise independent states (each with their own territories, governments, etc.) come to share the same monarch. Has it ever come to pass that two member states of a ...
10
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2answers
471 views

When and how did the presidents of states became governors in the U.S.A?

In the earliest days of the U.S.A., the heads of the governments of some of the states were called governors and those of some states were called presidents (hence the U.S. Constitution refers to the "...
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1answer
174 views

Does government play a genuinely significant role in history, or is it simply a tool for interest groups to apply force on their behalf? [closed]

Has government ever played a truly significant role in historical events, or does it mostly rubberstamp things that nongovernmental entities would do anyway? After all, Manorialism was a social ...
2
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0answers
161 views

Any sources on day to day governance in the ancient world? [closed]

EDIT: I've been asked to make this question simpler so here is my best attempt: I'm looking for sources, either primary, secondary, or even good pieces of historical fiction, that deal with the daily ...
0
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2answers
172 views

System of Government where the Same Family Cannot Inherit

I have been trying to find evidence of a system of government where one of the principles it works on would be to hinder the creation of effective political families (thereby allowing people to ...
0
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1answer
752 views

When was the last time the Catholic Church excommunicated a government official for political reasons?

The Roman Catholic Church has a long history of excommunicating people. These days it is mostly constrained to excommunicating bishops who break with doctrine. The Pope regularly sends letters to ...
8
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1answer
167 views

How was the lower chamber of the Japanese Imperial Diet elected under the Meiji constitution?

During the period 1868-1945, Japan was ruled under the "constitution of the empire of Japan" better known as the "Meiji constitution". Under this constitution, the Imperial Diet was the legislature ...
14
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2answers
625 views

Were there elections in France under the absolute monarchy?

I was wondering, if any elections allowed in France during the period of absolutism. In the Middle age, people with civil and political rights were allowed to elect some kind of city council (also in ...
8
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1answer
349 views

How was the Roman Princeps Senatus appointed?

In Republican Rome, the princeps senatus (~head of the senate) was supposed to have been nominated by the censors, who were elected every 5 years for 1 and a half years. What happened when the ...
7
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2answers
203 views

Why did Peter the Great tie particular expenditures to particular revenue sources?

Peter the Great founded the Russian Academy in 1724. In his decree, he says the Academy will be supported by an annual grant of 25,000 rubles drawn from the custom tolls of Baltic Sea ports. (source) ...
2
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1answer
183 views

Have governments or combatants marked the houses of groups to be persecuted?

I came across a claim on Skeptics about marking the houses of those to be killed by the government. The idea appeared to me as pretty silly - "Why would the government make it that obvious?", but I ...
14
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1answer
825 views

Why is the charter of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations signed “HOWARD”?

Why is the charter of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations signed "HOWARD"? Note also that the Charter of Connecticut is likewise signed "By Writ of Privy Seal, HOWARD". But, the keeper of the ...