Questions tagged [18th-century]

The 18th century lasted from January 1, 1701 to December 31, 1800 in the Gregorian calendar.

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What were Lord Macartney's original words about Chinese under the Qianlong Emperor's brutal regime in 18th century?

This is a follow-up question of Where can I find modern account of Macartney Embassy to China (1792–1794)? After Lord Macartney returned from his mission to the Qianlong Emperor, he made a poignant ...
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Where can I find modern account of Macartney Embassy to China (1792–1794)?

Macartney Embassy was the first British diplomatic mission to China. It was such an important but little-known event. I read quite some Chinese materials but not many English materials. The wiki ...
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Was there any significant cultural shift in Russian Empire caused by the partition of Poland?

Wikipedia article on Tsardom of Russia claims that acquisition of Wild Fields and Kiev Academy caused an influx of intellectuals in Russia, which in turn kick-started later reforms by Peter The Great ...
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How did composers of the mid 18th and early 19th century get discovered and hired for jobs?

Say you were a composer of the mid 18th and early 19th century during the time of composers such as Beethoven and Mozart. How would you go about getting yourself discovered by others? Was it through ...
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Would a house built in 1745 have a water tank in the attic? (up to 1847)

Was looking at the floorplans on this page (picture 43), was wondering if buildings from 1745-1847 were likely to have water tanks in the attic? Would this have been added during a relatively modern (...
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In 18th century America, how did people board ships to travel long distance?

This is a continuation of this question I asked earlier. According to the answers I got from the question, a better way for my character to travel is by ship, as quoted from user Mark Johnson: Taking ...
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Did Americans in the later half of the 18th-century have more freedom in choosing a partner?

According to this article, starting from the last half of the 18th century there was a decline in parents' influence over young people's choice of partners, and the idea of romantic love started to be ...
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What was the error in 1790, if any, of the lat. and long. of Greenwich Observatory of 1783?

A YouTube video by Brady Haran, Mapping the Meridians - Objectivity 97, ended in a cliff hanger (the answer not found by Brady, and Keith Moore of The Royal Society). It's with regard to the Anglo-...
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Did Continental Army officers wear wigs or keep their hair white like their British Army counterparts?

I just can't find any concrete answer to this question because there is just too much conflicting information. While I know British enlisted men weren't allowed to wear wigs but were forced to grow ...
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How did coach service in 18th century America work?

I know that carriage transportation in the US imitated that of Europe, and I know that in the 18th century coaches could be used to transport goods and people and they could also be used as a public ...
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What were Russian empresses' position and policy regarding women's role in society and their rights?

There are 4 empress regnants (Catherine I, Anna, Elizabeth, Catherine II) in Russian history, all of whom ruled during roughly the same historic period (18th century). 3 of them (Anna, Elizabeth, ...
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Could an eight-year-old child be eligible to stand trial as a witness and provide testimony in an 18th-century American courtroom? [closed]

I'm doing research for a historical fiction set in a small fictional town in America between the year 1778 and 1779. Let's say I have two characters, John and Jack. John is an officer in the ...
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Would a commissioned officer in the Royal Navy during the mid-late 18th century ever sail on a vessel other than a man-o-war, ship of the line, etc?

As someone who does not exactly understand how naval commissions worked in the 18th century, I am curious to know if there might have ever been an occasion where a commissioned officer (such as a ...
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Where did a ship's navigator usually work?

On a 16-1700s ship, did the navigator have his own room/section of the ship to work? If so, where? Any articles I find just talk about how the navigate, not where.
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What did it mean to be a Grecian in late-18th Century British schools?

Near the beginning of CS Forester's novel Mr Midshipman Hornblower, which begins in 1793, the titular Hornblower arrives on board his first ship, where the captain asks about his schooling: "How ...
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What were the components of a good classical education in 18th Century British Empire?

Reading the Federalist Papers, I’m really impressed by the command that the American Founders had not only of the language but also models of philosophy, history, and politics. What would a good ...
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Why were so many female members of Hapsburg family named Maria something?

Recently, I have noticed that Empress Maria Theresa’s daughters’ names all begin with Maria. Archduchess Maria Elisabeth Archduchess Maria Anna Archduchess Maria Carolina Maria Christina, Duchess of ...
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How likely it is that a nobleman of the eighteenth century would give written instructions to his maids?

This question is about a detail in the biography of one of the greatest scientists who ever lived, Henry Cavendish. The Wikipedia article about him states that He communicated with his female ...
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How to track down a Spanish/Latin American soldier that fought in wars internationally (18th/19th century)?

The details are scant, but I hope it's enough to get the community interested and a clear answer emerge (there can't be that many people who fit the bill?). I read a long time ago about a famous ...
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How to find the population and mortality in London during the period 1760-1834?

I have to reconstruct the graph showing death rates from infectious diseases and from all causes in London. But I have trouble with finding the data for the period 1760-1834. In the graph are shown ...
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Did Augustus the Strong sleep with his own daughter?

I'm working my way through Robert Massie's voluminous biography of Peter the Great at the moment. It's truly a pleasure to read; one really does have the sensation of stepping into Peter's world. ...
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Did Spanish missions block exploration of South America?

According to The river sea : the Amazon in history, myth, and legend, page 112, In any study of these wild regions [of South America], one is constantly astounded, even moved, regardless of one's ...
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What is or was a Bond Major?

In our parish church we have a clock with an engraving on it that says 'The Gift of the Hon. Edward Trelawny the Bond Major 1737'. Does anybody know what a Bond Major was/is? Unfortunately I have no ...
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In the Middle Ages - 18th century, how long would it take for a blacksmith forge a regular farming scythe to a war scythe?

Whenever I look up how long it took for a blacksmith to certain tools or weapons, I just get information on forging swords. Let's say a peasant is trying to make his scythe efficient for self-defense ...
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Where does Edmund Burke explain aristocratic eccentricity as a reaction to the influx of non-titled country gentlemen?

I am looking for the source of a notion of Edmund Burke’s that the English aristocracy turned to eccentric behavior in order to distinguish themselves from the “new men” who were acquiring estates in ...
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Was there a way for ships to disengage from boarding actions?

I was doing some research about Naval tactics in Age of Sail - especially in boarding tactics. I read several personal diaries, letters and accounts of these battles written by combatants. From ...
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What were the typical types of ships used in the Persian Navy in the 1730's and 1740's?

What were the typical types of ships used in the Persian Navy in the 1730's and 1740's? Is the make-up of the fleet known (i.e., how many ships of what class, etc)? The revival of Persia's power in ...
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Why did typesetting allegedly "make it difficult for illegal copiers"?

From the Wikipedia article Typesetting One significant effect of typesetting was that authorship of works could be spotted more easily, making it difficult for copiers who have not gained permission. ...
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What was the effect of the Disannexation Act of 1784?

I am trying to find more specific information on the effect of the Disannexation Act of 1784 which provided means for those whose property had been confiscated after the ‘45 to regain it after paying ...
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Were there any specific laws/treaties enshrining the Principle of Distinction in the 18th century?

Hathaway and Shapiro (2017): By the middle of the eighteenth century, European armies had come to recognize a “Principle of Distinction,” the doctrine central to modern humanitarian law, which ...
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What sort of boat transported transport the French colonial Governors of New Orleans?

I am writing a description of the changeover of the French colonial Governors of New Orleans in 1753, from Vaudreuil to Kerlérec. There is mention of a Governor's boat used to take important guests to ...
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Why did the United States Army force Nez Perce to give up their own land?

I'm wondering why United States Army coerced the Nez Perce to give up their own land which had violated the 1855 Treaty of Walla Walla. What I wanted to know is the reason why this had happened, ...
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What did typical mid-18th century housing look like in English villages?

There seems to be a plethora of resources available that describe what mid-18th / early 19th century housing looked like in major English cities, particularly London. But, I cannot find much ...
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Why did Peter the Great name Saint Petersburg, Russia with a foreign styled name?

When Peter the Great of Russia established Saint Petersburg he originally called it Sankt-Pieter-Burch (Сан(к)т-Питер-Бурхъ) in Dutch manner. Later, under apparent German influence it was changed to ...
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Are there historical instances of settlers who were largely uncontacted and undisturbed after settling?

I am looking for historical instances of a rather specific and strange scenario: Settlers who settled a wild/unclaimed territory (ideally 100-300 in number) who after settling in the new place, were ...
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Which misdeeds of F. Reineke was J.B.B. de Lesseps "obliged to suppress"?

F. Reineke was commandant of Kamchatka from about 1780 to 1784. According to Витер's История символов как история административного деления государства he was responsible for moving the territorial ...
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How were the Burmese able to sack Ayutthaya when it was one of the wealthiest and most powerful cities in Asia at the time? [closed]

So I’m “watching” (more like skipping to the interesting scenes) the Thai lakorn/historical drama Sri Ayodhaya and in one episode, this one professor said that Ayutthaya was an incredibly wealthy and ...
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What would have been the typical drinks for a US farmer in the late 18th/early 19th century?

What would have been the typical drinks for a US farmer in the late 18th/early 19th century? I have read a lot about cider being a frequent drink, but it is not a common drink now in the United ...
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To whom does Napoleon refer in this letter to Josephine?

I was going through some of the letters written by Napoleon to Josephine, and found these lines on napoleonguide.com/lovejos6.htm, "I send a kiss to your children, whom you do not mention. By God! If ...
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Was it possible for a message from Paris to reach London within 48 hours in 1782?

I used to have a paperback copy of Diplomacy of the American Revolution by Samuel Flagg Bemis, but now I can't find it. I seem to recall that American diplomats in Paris in 1782 (Franklin, Adams, Jay) ...
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Did Catherine the Great really call for the abolition of serfdom?

... like Catherine the Great S01E01 (2019) shows? This would be almost a century before serfdom was actually abolished, and makes one wonder why the Czars didn't just do it, if they were in favor of ...
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How was the linen weaving trade learnt in 18th century Scotland?

In the 18th century, the linen weaving industry began to form a significant part of Scotland's economy and workforce, with towns like Forfar employing 500 hand loom weavers at the end of the century, ...
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Why has the 18th and not the 19th century come to be called „the age of reason“?

Not withstanding the romantic counter movement, nothing communicates to me the sense of belief in rationality and associated progress more than 19th century works. If I was to cite an emblematic book, ...
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Was lobster considered a poor man's food in the Georgian era?

Many years ago I took a tour through a restored Georgian-era house in Dublin (best €2 I spent that summer). This included some pretty good explanations on the everyday life and customs in that period, ...
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Could George I (of Great Britain) speak English?

Web based sources differ wildly in stating how well King George I could speak English. Brittanica says: Since he could not speak English, he communicated with his ministers in French. Wikipedia, ...
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What could explain the myth (or truth) of drunken defenders during the battle of the plains of Abraham?

I have come across popular references towards the sodden or sozzled state of the French and Canadien defenders of Quebec City during the Battle of the Plains of Abraham. Mostly, these references are ...
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How long was a coach journey from Coburg to St Peterburg in 1790s?

If someone had to get from Coburg to St Petersburg in the 1790s? Would they travel overland by stagecoach or go up to the north German coast and get a boat round to the Gulf of Finland and enter ...
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Did James Madison sign all copies of the Bill of Rights?

I'm aware that James Madison wrote the Bill of Rights but then 13 copies were distributed to the 13 original colonies to review and edit. Is it James Madison's signature on the copies that were sent ...
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Did officers use cases / bags / pouches in the 18th century?

Military officers in the 18th century usually did not have any cases or boxes. Normal soldiers for example often had cartridge boxes. I usually hear, that officers had servants/etc to take care of ...
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For how many years in the eighteenth century were Russian soldiers present within the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth borders?

For modern Poland, the answer is rather simple. Russian, and later Soviet soldiers, were stationed inside the Polish borders for almost the whole 19th and 20th centuries (with a notable exception for ...

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