Questions tagged [europe]

It is the second smallest continent, forming the Western extension of Eurasia.

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1answer
161 views

Why was silage only invented in the 19th Century?

For thousands of years in the Northern climates mankind had to slaughter a large proportion of their livestock due to a shortage of winter fodder. What prevented mankind from using silage/haylage ...
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What were the cultures that persisted in Europe, US in WW1 WW2 (pre counterculture) [on hold]

What ideas, artworks, activities were exposed to citizens in Europe (allies and fascists) and US on a daily basis?
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Was there a semi-professional soldiering class in Early Middle Ages Europe?

We're all familiar with the basic setup of feudal society: a large class of peasants supporting a small martial-administrative class of knights. In the event of a big war, peasants get handed some ...
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How much did it cost to buy a ticket on the Orient Express from Paris to Istanbul in 1914?

I'm trying to find out how much it cost to travel on the Orient Express in its heyday. Was it a luxury for the rich, or something middle-class people could reasonably afford? To be concrete: how much ...
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1answer
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Who are these people in this satirical cartoon of the Congress of Verona?

Who are these people in this satirical cartoon of the Congress of Verona? Alternative images, click for details: Three men in military dress sit around a rectangular table - a fourth man has stood ...
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2answers
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How were large monetary transactions conducted in medieval Europe?

Recently, I have read in the news about a large hoard of Norman coins in England being found. Apparently, all of these coins were silver pennies. And then it occurred to me that small silver coins ...
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3answers
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What should I call bands of armed men in the Middle Ages?

I am writing a fiction short story roughly based off medieval times in Europe. In it I have a group of men who live in a castle and fight for the castle's lord. (They mainly protect the surrounding ...
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1answer
368 views

What kind of bullet did I find in Swiss glacial ice?

I found this bullet frozen in glacial ice in Switzerland. There is no visible stamp on it anymore and unfortunately did not have any precise measuring equipment with me. I can measure the size of my ...
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1answer
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Was Ludwig von Mises a holocaust survivor? [closed]

Von Mises left Europe to avoid the Nazis. Does that make him a Holocaust Survivor?
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What does this signature say?

I’m having difficulty of reading what this fancy signature or fancy writing says on my great grandfather’s ring?
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2answers
439 views

Did every medieval village in Europe have a manor, castle, or other type of lord's residence?

I know that some villages were the sole and only property of certain minor lords or knights. Such villages surely had a manor (or even a castle) where the lord lives. On the other hand, many lords ...
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2answers
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What is the relationship between land claims and ranks of nobility? [closed]

I'm of the understanding that nobility tittles in ancient Europe(and maybe nobility in general) entail land claims. However, does the significance of their tittle affect the size of land given to them?...
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7answers
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How were Martello towers supposed to work?

Having recently seen a Martello tower on the East coast of England, I tried to find-out what the defensive strategy was supposed to be - but the internet seems very short on information. The South-...
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5answers
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Why are most of the world's oldest buildings in Europe and not in the Fertile Crescent?

Looking at the list of the world's ten oldest surviving human constructed buildings, many are in Europe while the oldest building in what (with a generous interpretation of the concept) could be ...
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1answer
390 views

What were the rejected designs for the Euro symbol?

The Euro symbol (€), supposedly but not certainly designed by Alain Billiet, was selected from a pool of proposals. According to a very official-looking document from europa.eu: Some thirty drafts ...
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5answers
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What's the correct term for a waitress in the Middle Ages?

How was a waitress called in the Middle Ages? Handmaid, waitress, maid, ...? And is there a different name for the ones who did this kind of job inside a castle, in contrast to the women doing this ...
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Why did the person in charge of a principality not just declare themself king?

I don't understand the concept of principalities, why wouldn't you just call yourself king? The job description appears to be exactly the same. When England was ruled by the Saxons we had a bunch of ...
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Which European Languages are not Indo-European?

I saw this question asked on Twitter today. At first blush it seemed like an easy reference question, but I can't find any place that actually has this spelled out in one place. I ended up having to ...
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1answer
210 views

How did a student grant work in 18th/19th century Western Europe

I am making research for a book, and I need details about grants/scholarships in Western Europe around the beginning of the 19th century, ideally for a teenager living far away from the applied school....
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1answer
341 views

Is this a Masonic Ring?

I told by my Auntie that she had a Masonic ring that came from my Great Grandfather from my mum’s side of the family and I’m skeptical if this ring she sent a photo of is really a Masonic ring. I ...
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3answers
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What is the significance of 4200 BCE in context of farming replacing foraging in Europe?

This is a question relating to how and, in particular, why foragers were colonized by farmers (settled societies) of Hilly Flanks (uplands of Fertile Crescent of Southwest Asia). According to Ian ...
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2answers
282 views

What was the place of a catapult in a formation

My question is where would you usually keep a catapult on a battlefield. It feels as if you shouldn't keep it in the rear back of the army since it won't reach the target, and also you want to have as ...
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1answer
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What exactly is the “revolution from the bourgeois” referred to in flow?

I was reading the book Flow by Mihaly Csizkszentmihalyi, wherein the following quote is made on page 67: “The much more subtle but equally coercive social controls of bourgeois Vienna made Freud’s ...
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Why was Germany not as successful as other Europeans in establishing overseas colonies?

French, British, Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch.. they all had vast outreach across the globe on multiple continents. Why did Germans not have this much outreach?
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1answer
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How did women give birth in middle ages? [closed]

I don't really know where to ask this question, and how to name it properly in short. But here: As I read through historical literature about middle ages it seemed like the dark times: constant wars,...
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1answer
186 views

Why were the doors of ghettos locked at night?

I've heard that some hundreds of years ago, in many places, the Jews were forced to live in ghettos and that the doors to the ghetto were locked at night. (See, for example, https://widerimage....
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What's the point of fortified castles inside fortified cities?

In middle ages people built highly fortified castles for royalty inside cities that were already fortified by walls. What was the reasoning behind that? Were they made to protect royal families from ...
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2answers
534 views

Why did Europeans call Native Americans Indians in the 18th Century AD, After they had found out they were in the wrong continent?

Why did European people continue to call Native Americans as Indians even after they found out they were not Indians? Question was inspired by Louis Ck's stand up bit. Based on what I know: ...
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5answers
638 views

What's the origin of the movement to withdraw the United Kingdom from the European Union?

Who first proposed that the UK should leave the EU, and why? How did this movement grow in support?
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1answer
308 views

Why were some Napoleonic battles fought at sea?

'The Royal Navy 1793-1815' is all about the different battles that took place in the water'...my main concern is why the navy was involved at all? why couldn't they just fight in the land ? Is it ...
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1answer
162 views

What is the number of slaves imported from Africa to the Americas by non-British countries?

From 1526 to approximately 1870, slave ships from various countries loaded slaves from Africa and took them to somewhere in the Americas. (Note, in this question, I use "America" and "Americas" to ...
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0answers
156 views

What does the date on the tombstone mean?

This photo was taken in the Cathedral of St. Martin in Bratislava. I found information about the genus Palffy, but not one of his representatives died in 1845; moreover, it turns out that this person ...
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1answer
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What's the meaning of a knight fighting a snail in medieval book illustrations?

Someone sent me this really weird picture of a medieval illustration. It depicted a knight fighting a snail, and was basically a viral snarky commentary about how weird medieval ideas were. I tried ...
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1answer
258 views

Rose tattoo used to mark convicts condemned to death?

I recall from my university history courses a factoid about rose tattoos being used to mark convicts condemned to death in Europe during the Renaissance period (in case of escape), and was wondering ...
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What are the per capita alcohol consumption rates of England from 1700 to 1900?

The rates are readily available for the period 1800 onwards but there is some trouble finding equivalent data for the period prior to 1800. Moreover, the data that I have some across so far even for ...
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2answers
545 views

Why was fellatio considered so horrible during the XIX century in Europe?

The mentioned sexual practice was extremely frowned upon during that period, basically only prostitutes were to do them and even in this case, only with huge amounts of received money, that, in the ...
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1answer
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What is meant by “state people” in this context? (Governments of new Balkan states post-WWI)

I'm reading The Origins of Totalitarianism by Hannah Arendt, but since my background is science I find the history a little hard to follow. What is the meaning of state people in the following quote? ...
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2answers
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European Life Expectancy Comparable? Now or When?

Question: Was their ever a people in European history where life expectancy was similar to Now? 21st century? 70+ years of age? Average or Median? I realize conventional wisdom would inform us ...
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3answers
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What is the oldest European royal house?

What is the oldest European royal or princely house, either enthroned or dethroned, that patrilineally survives nowadays?
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At what age could you hold custody of another in 12th century England?

My question is as stated in the title. My reason for asking is that I know girls could marry at twelve, and boys at fourteen. I am wondering at what age could each have legal custody of another? I ...
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216 views

How accepted were public displays of affection in medieval France?

Were a man and a woman allowed to kiss/hug/hold hands in public? Did it differ depending on whether they were married or not? What about if they were engaged? If it was forbidden, what punishment did ...
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1answer
307 views

Why were the Soviets better at replacing their lost men and material? [duplicate]

Battle of Kursk is considered a Soviet decisive victory, no doubt it was the last major German offensive at the Eastern front. But why so? Casualties indicate the Soviets suffered 1 million ...
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2answers
277 views

Where was the first European electric tramway operated?

Many sources agree that the tramway Vevey-Montreux-Chillon, built in 1888 was Switzerland's first and Europe's second electric tramway. However, sources are contradictory on which was the first ...
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For the French Army under Jean Martinet (d1672) how and why were cavalry used instead of infantry?

For France's army of the period of Jean Martinet (d1672) in the Early modern, how and why were cavalry used instead of infantry? In European warfare the default company is the infantry company. This ...
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When (and where) did public polling start taking place on topics other than elections?

Image Source: The Roper Center on Cornell.edu Question When did public opinion polling on topics other than elections begin? Are there examples prior to the 1930's when Gallup and Roper began ...
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How did Ancient Egyptians see Europe and how did they call the area?

I was wondering how the Egyptians during the time of the Middle Kingdom saw Europe, besides Greece, Rome, and Macedonia? Did they ever travel to trade in or explore the northern part of the continent, ...
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2answers
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Did nutmeg really prevent infections during the Bubonic Plague?

Not sure if this comes under biology or history. Years ago, a chemistry professor gave us a short lesson on the history of nutmeg. He said, the priests in Europe wore pouches around their neck ...
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7answers
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Why is the consensus that WW2 started on September 1, 1939 and not July 7, 1937?

Looking at Wikipedia, dates given are 1 September 1939 – 2 September 1945, which end in the defeat of Japan. However why is the starting date when Germany invaded Poland and not when the Japanese ...
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1answer
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Why the European Union choose to use a Nazi flag? [closed]

I wonder why the EU uses a Nazi flag like the one from this picture? Source: https://qph.fs.quoracdn.net/main-qimg-32598a7f739cbfe57c03e4011891984b
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1answer
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Why did the maize-based society that Spain found in the Central Valley of Mexico not dominate over Europe?

· Was there something in the Mesoamerican cultures that put obstacles to growth and development? · Did American crops such as maize, cacao beans, and tobacco, compete unfavorably with European ...