Questions tagged [europe]

It is the second smallest continent, forming the Western extension of Eurasia.

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6
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0answers
81 views

What were the contemporary European reactions of de Vlamingh's sightings of black swans?

Willem de Vlamingh is reportedly the first European to have seen black swans near modern-day Perth, Western Australia in 1697. The 'black swan' had existed in Europe as a metaphor for about fifteen ...
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108 views

What determined who would be on the front lines of a large infantry engagement? [duplicate]

In Ancient and Middle Aged European Armies, what decided whether a soldier was at the front lines or just in the normal center-back? Was it a status symbol or honor to be in the front lines? Please ...
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Has the 'indefensible-castles-for-nobles-to-discuss-but-peasants-to-gape-at' theory been proposed for Continental Western Europe?

I did try and make the title shorter but I didn't really know how to describe this as "the Liddiard and Morris theory" wouldn't make sense to many people. If someone can word it neater then ...
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Was there a European country that held a referendum about adopting English in universities?

I vaguely remember that there was a European country (not the UK or Ireland) that held a referendum about adopting English as the primary language of instruction in universities. The referendum failed....
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Is there any evidence of pre-European contact spread of Eurasian-origin diseases in Australia, e.g., from Kilwan traders? [closed]

I know that Indonesians had been in touch with Aboriginals, and that the Cholas made it to Australia as well. Even coins from the East African Kilwa Sultanate have been found in Australia! If there ...
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1answer
122 views

Were eastern weapons ever seen in medieval Europe and western weapons ever seen in medieval Asia? [closed]

Like could some trader in medieval France be selling a katana or urumi amongst his wares that he obtained in his travels? Could a merchant in Japan have a zweihander or flamberge in his collection?
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How did the Hansa organize river trade in the 14th and 15th centuries?

How did the Hansa accommodate the transition from sea to river trade along a trade route? Would river travel have been controlled by one group of people, e.g., Guild of the River Oder Merchants? Would ...
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Do these depictions of hunt in medieval Catholic churches have the same symbolic meaning? If not, what is it?

I have come across 3 depictions of a hunt in Catholic churches. The first two are tiles that were on the floors of an English abbey and a church not far from Reims, France; I could not find any ...
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1answer
73 views

What percentage of the population were serfs by region/year?

Where can I find statistics on the percentage of the population that were serfs, ideally broken down by country/region and by year? Even very rough estimates would be helpful, but unfortunately I've ...
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6answers
424 views

How did Western leaders justify NATO's eastwards expansion after promising the Soviet leadership it won't happen?

Western leaders apparently promised Soviet premier Mikhail Gorbachev that NATO would not expand eastwards and threaten Soviet security interests. Leaders named include Baker, Bush, Genscher, Kohl, ...
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How did private property work in medieval France?

Were you required to purchase a land deed to get permission from the ruler of the area, or could you build wherever you wanted? If the latter is how it worked throughout Europe for the most part, I ...
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1answer
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Were people really as haphazardly *burned at the stake* back in the day in Europe as they make it out to have been? [closed]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amalrician This is just one of countless articles/stories I've read over the years about how some crazy folks in Europe burned other, equally crazy folks at the stake -- ...
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1answer
239 views

Is there a place in Europe that has never been Christian?

Before the advent of Catholic and Orthodox Christianity, Europe had numerous religions over at least 40 thousand years, as archaeologic evidence shows. Is there any place/community where Celtic, ...
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1answer
80 views

What was the societal structure of Celtic culture in the Hallstatt period? [closed]

What was the societal structure of Celtic culture in the Hallstatt period? There does not seem to be much information online about this. My preliminary research consists of looking on Wikipedia for ...
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2answers
1k views

Who were the first “businessmen” to rival the kings throughout the world? [closed]

The merchants seem to have existed for as long as human history. But when did they begin to "take over" the kings? By that I mean, by the time of the "tycoons" like the Oil and Train people of the ...
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1answer
234 views

What have been the major milestones in the creation of state literacy policies?

There have been times as literacy was not obligatory. So, many people were not able to read/write in their mother tongue, but it was just normal. Today, most people are literate, and this is a result ...
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What were the most popular destinations for British and American tourists on the Continent in the period 1880-1900?

How common was English and American travel to the Continent of Europe between 1880-1900? By businessmen, families, debutantes, honeymooners, politicians etc.
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458 views

Why don't Americans claim English ancestry? [closed]

Through a lot of American Movies and TV shows, and also my personal experiences of interacting with people in America, I know that most White Americans are informed of their European ancestry, and are ...
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2answers
450 views

Did people shoot from both sides of the bow in medieval times?

Most modern archers are taught to shoot with Mediterranean style; that is, putting the arrow on the left side of the bow (if they're right handed) and pulling the string with 3 fingers. Some claim ...
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2answers
174 views

How would “distraint of knighthood” law in medieval England fit with the fact that all knights must be of noble birth?

I've read recently about “distraint of knighthood” law in medieval England started by Henry III but I found it very strange indeed. This law forced all rich people who has 40 £ or more to be knighted ...
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1answer
224 views

Who or what were the Nassadista?

I have encountered several references to Nassadista in a 16th century Latin manuscript. As far as I can tell the noun is masculine, first declension (nominative plural Nassadistæ). Context implies ...
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1answer
216 views

How was the Pandidakterion organised?

How was the Pandidakterion organised? Wikipedia:Pandidakterion states that the Pandidakterion lacked 'corporative structure'. I do not understant exactly what the corporative structure is and how was ...
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2answers
223 views

How could wells back in the day work? [closed]

One of the many things that have confused me all my life is the concept of wells. I get that somebody, long ago, discovered that there's sometimes/often water in the ground, once you dig deeply ...
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1answer
368 views

In which East European country in the 1990s did people put their TVs in front of windows and turn them facing outside?

Years ago, I read an article about the period during which regime changes happened in Eastern European countries in the late 1980s and early 1990s. It was mentioned in the article that, in one of ...
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2answers
548 views

Did healers in medieval Europe use moldy bread in poultices for wounds?

In a Song of Ice and Fire, injured characters are frequently given a poultice made of, amongst other things, moldy bread. We drowned the wound with boiling wine, and closed you up with a poultice ...
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141 views

How did Adam Worth make sure his crooks didn't keep what they stole?

I'm currently reading through the The Life and Times of Adam Worth and as much as I'm fascinated by Adam Worth and his mastermind for 19th century crime, there is one thing that the book fails to ...
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4answers
526 views

What authority did the Catholic Church have over European monarchs from 900–1450?

I recently described the Catholic Church as a superpower during the Middle Ages and was surprised a respected member of the board (LangLangC) objected to that characterization and thought the Catholic ...
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2answers
484 views

When did the number of motor driven vehicles surpass the number of horse driven vehicles in Paris, London, Berlin?

What exact year (or the closest approximation) did the number of motor driven vehicles surpass the number of horse driven vehicles (including the single horseman) on the streets of Paris?
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48 views

Are there scholarly sources for Eastern European Revolutions of 1989-1990?

Are there scholarly works on these changes that are highly regarded and relatively apolitical? It's of course very easy to find politically charged interpretations of these events, but, 30 years on, ...
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5answers
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How did the Druids learn the Greek language by the time of Caesar's campaign in Gaul?

In Latin class, we are translating parts of Caesar's Commentaries on the Gallic War. One thing that struck me as odd is how Caesar describes the customs of the Gauls, especially in Book 6, where he ...
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1answer
156 views

Are there factors which caused the printing revolution to begin in Europe in 1450 and not some other place some other time?

The printing press was a big deal. It brought a communication revolution and led to the development of larger collective consciousnesses. What I am refering to the printing revolution is the ...
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1answer
126 views

Was the Iron curtain actually present at the time of the Fulton speech?

On March 5th, 1946, Winston Churchill said in his Sinews of Peace speech that From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. At the end ...
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5answers
965 views

Were there any monarchs of England or the United Kingdom who were not technically first in the line of succession? [closed]

Pretty self-explanatory. Who (if anyone) became an English/UK monarch without being the actual heir to the previous monarch (due to wars, coups, etc.)? Bonus points for circumstances.
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1answer
193 views

Who is this particular inventor from XIX century?

I came acros with the following description about a certain inventor from XIX century: An illustrious 19th-century European character who amassed an immense fortune thanks to his more than three ...
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1answer
216 views

How were the beds in which privileged man in medieval Europe slept? [closed]

I think it is correct to say that for all medieval Europe time the basic peasant, worker bed was a cold stone floor or at most a mattress made out of straw. I wonder how and on top of what powerful ...
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2answers
217 views

How were precise hand drawn illustrations copied between the 16th and 20th century in Europe?

What were the methods used to copy detailed illustrations for distribution throughout the period between 1500 and 1900 (excluding photography)? I'm particularly interested in techniques common in ...
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0answers
213 views

How did Roman law change between Justinian and Basil II?

What were the ways in which Roman law changed between under the rule of Justinian I (with his Corpus Juris Civilis and the rest of his Legal Order) and under the rule of Basil II? I am interested in ...
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2answers
299 views

Who is this statue of?

Purchased it from an Italian leather shop in Budapest Hungary. Curious to find out the history behind it. I was recently informed it may be of a Hungarian cowboy. His outfit looks a bit formal. It ...
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What uniform is my great great Cossack grandfather wearing?

The man bellow with the medals and the beard is my great great grandfather. He was a cossack in the Urals, I have been looking for ages but I can not find what Cossack uniform he is wearing. I really ...
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1answer
356 views

Why was silage only invented in the 19th Century?

For thousands of years in the Northern climates mankind had to slaughter a large proportion of their livestock due to a shortage of winter fodder. What prevented mankind from using silage/haylage ...
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2answers
346 views

Which EU countries insisted on unanimous voting for trade deals?

Question prompted by this tweet by Jo Maugham in reaction to a HuffPost article: Humiliating, really, but if we leave the EU we'll have to brown-nose every single one of the Member States: ...
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3answers
360 views

Was there a semi-professional soldiering class in Early Middle Ages Europe?

We're all familiar with the basic setup of feudal society: a large class of peasants supporting a small martial-administrative class of knights. In the event of a big war, peasants get handed some ...
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1answer
439 views

How much did it cost to buy a ticket on the Orient Express from Paris to Istanbul in 1914?

I'm trying to find out how much it cost to travel on the Orient Express in its heyday. Was it a luxury for the rich, or something middle-class people could reasonably afford? To be concrete: how much ...
18
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1answer
2k views

Who are these people in this satirical cartoon of the Congress of Verona?

Who are these people in this satirical cartoon of the Congress of Verona? Alternative images, click for details: Three men in military dress sit around a rectangular table - a fourth man has stood ...
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2answers
504 views

How were large monetary transactions conducted in medieval Europe?

Recently, I have read in the news about a large hoard of Norman coins in England being found. Apparently, all of these coins were silver pennies. And then it occurred to me that small silver coins ...
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3answers
6k views

What should I call bands of armed men in the Middle Ages?

I am writing a fiction short story roughly based off medieval times in Europe. In it I have a group of men who live in a castle and fight for the castle's lord. (They mainly protect the surrounding ...
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1answer
427 views

What kind of bullet did I find in Swiss glacial ice?

I found this bullet frozen in glacial ice in Switzerland. There is no visible stamp on it anymore and unfortunately did not have any precise measuring equipment with me. I can measure the size of my ...
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1answer
142 views

Was Ludwig von Mises a holocaust survivor? [closed]

Von Mises left Europe to avoid the Nazis. Does that make him a Holocaust Survivor?
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What does this signature say?

I’m having difficulty of reading what this fancy signature or fancy writing says on my great grandfather’s ring?
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2answers
941 views

Did every medieval village in Europe have a manor, castle, or other type of lord's residence?

I know that some villages were the sole and only property of certain minor lords or knights. Such villages surely had a manor (or even a castle) where the lord lives. On the other hand, many lords ...

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