Questions tagged [europe]

It is the second smallest continent, forming the Western extension of Eurasia.

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4
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2answers
379 views
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How common was cannibalism in Christian Europe until the 17th century?

When hearing about cannibalism, a Robinson-Crusoean narrative usually comes to my mind, where primitive tribes would engage in limited warfare and probably ritualistically consume their prisoners. ...
35
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1answer
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How common were marital duels in medieval Europe?

On social media, I came across a post claiming that in medieval Germany spouses could settle a divorce outside of court, civic or religious, through trial by combat! Naturally, I was shocked (the ...
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1answer
322 views

Why do Eastern European countries have the greatest female-to-male ratio?

I'm taking a Data Analysis class where we go over some data samples. Today we went over the world population data from 1950 to 2015. We noticed that the proportion of females to males was the highest ...
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3answers
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Have Germans expelled from Eastern Europe been re-enfranchised?

After World War II, large numbers of ethnic-Germans who had lived in Eastern Europe were expelled - by the local (post-Nazi-occupation) government, by the USSR and even with some Western power ...
3
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1answer
177 views

Were hag stones ever engraved?

I found a hag stone the other day and am planning on stringing it as an amulet. My research indicates such amulets were in use over much of Europe, particularly Western Europe, as well as Egypt and ...
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5answers
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Were there any crops and livestock common to both the Old and New Worlds prior to the Columbian exchange?

The Columbian exchange (this is the correct spelling) transferred a diverse set of crops and livestock animals between the Old and New Worlds. However, I have begun to wonder if there were any crops ...
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0answers
111 views

To what extent did the Jewish tradition of debate influence the development of Classical Liberalism in Europe?

Judaism has a long tradition of valuing debate. My sense is that it is somewhat singular in this regard. Certainly there is debate within Islam or Christianity, but if I understand correctly, Judaism ...
4
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1answer
247 views

Can anyone help me identify this Coat of Arms?

Can anyone help me identify this coat of arms? As far as I can identify, there are 2 Lion Rampant regardant. A Pelican in her nest, a crown, a shield with stars. It is on a small galleried tray that I ...
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2answers
237 views

Is the depiction of the Stirling Castle Knight historically accurate?

For some reason BBC depicted him with a shaved head. I was wondering if it is historically accurate for a 700 year old English nobleman to have a shaved head?
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6answers
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Are there any accounts of everyday life during the Black Death?

How did everyday life looked like for people living during the Plague? I'm mostly interested in trying to understand things from the point of view of a regular person living in Europe. For example, I ...
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0answers
176 views

How did medieval peasants decide where to build their houses?

When a person moved out of their parents' house, they needed a house. How was it decided where this house would be located? For example, did they just pick the next available spot on a path? Were ...
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1answer
223 views

Can you help identify this European military uniform?

This picture was found in the possessions of a great-aunt who immigrated from Volhynia, Russia to Canada around 1908. My family is ethnically German, and many of the Volhynian Germans originally came ...
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0answers
109 views

How did the European public school system originate?

Are there any good sources for learning about the history of education in Europe? I am particularly interested in learning about the origins of the public schooling system, as it seems they should ...
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3answers
568 views

Why did Britain, not the Netherlands, create the greatest overseas empire?

The usual answer is that control of the sea trade was wrestled by Britain in a sequence of fierce Anglo-Dutch wars 1652-84. However, one can easily make the case that the Dutch won in this conflict. ...
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189 views

Has a reenactment of the firing of a carcass projectile ever been filmed?

From a Scientific American blog, on a "carcass" round: an explosive mortar shell (developed by the French) wrapped with incendiary material, this round was fully engulfed in flame after ...
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4answers
561 views

Why did Western democracies sign the Munich Agreement?

Why did Western democracies sign the Munich Agreement with Nazi Germany when they knew the nature of Nazi regime? What did they want to obtain by signing this agreement? In 1938/1939, two pacts/...
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3answers
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Can you help identify this European military uniform and medals?

My husband and I moved into a house that was built in 1900 in Wisconsin. We found some old pictures down in the basement, and I'm curious if I can figure out who the couple is? I thought I could ...
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2answers
134 views

Did religious names catch on before or after the use of last names?

Last names are interesting. Once upon a time, people had only first names, until growing populations and ostentatious royals started a trend of including a second name, most commonly either patronymic ...
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0answers
57 views

Can you identify this European uniform or awards?

This is my great great grandfather. I am having trouble identifying the uniform. It should be from around 1860-1890 ish. It would be from a German speaking country. The story that was passed down was ...
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51 views

What were common types of clutches used in water and wind mills?

What were common ways of engaging or disengaging machinery (Clutch?) in wooden drive trains of wind and water mills of the 1700’s and 1800’s?
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Where can I find a historic recipe for red cherry-onion jam?

A while back, I had duck with red cherry-onion jam at a medieval restaurant. Allegedly, it was a historic recipe, originally prepared in 1445 for the wedding of one of René d’Anjou’s daughters. As for ...
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1answer
285 views

Did the Roman government attempt to hide the collapse of the empire? [closed]

Did the late Roman government lie about the borders of their empire? Has this ever been argued by Roman historians? This question is different from this one. Michael Kulikowski refers to the Notitia ...
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What factors accounted for the pattern of caranvanserai across Eurasia? [closed]

This is a question we had in an AP World History test last week: I was able to answer (c) correctly (improvements in sea navigation and technology caused more and more people to transition from land-...
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429 views

What did the Gauls look like during the 1st century BC? [closed]

Right around the time of the Roman conquest of Gaul, contemporaneous accounts describe the Gauls as having looked like beasts or savages, with thick knotted cloaks and unkempt long hair and beards. ...
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3answers
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Was frequent bathing for personal hygiene in medieval Europe common or not?

The usual narrative: No bathing There is a frequently debunked claim that medieval Europeans did not bathe. Occasionally, the claim is connected to pandemics of the era and extended to the idea that ...
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1answer
97 views

What is the name for the very first Polish state likely established around 966 by Mieszko I through baptism of Poland?

In the year of likely around 966, Mieszko I united all of the tribes occupying a part of today's western Poland through Christianization of it, therefore making Poland an official sovereign state (at ...
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0answers
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Did 12th century French nobles really sleep in the great hall of the castle? [closed]

I've been on so many sites and each one seems to tell a different story. Some say that nobles had their own bedrooms (evidenced by the fact that castles had bedrooms) but I have also seen people say ...
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1answer
251 views

What criteria are used to determine the popularity of Medieval European rulers?

It is relatively common to see certain monarchs described as "popular" while others are "unpopular". It confounds me as to what specific evidence has been used to determine this, ...
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2answers
589 views

How did the layout of a Medieval European village typically change as it grew into a town?

Some of the research I've done so far WordlbuidingSE: How did the layout of a village change over time? This question was too broad, it's now more specific: It is not about settlements that were ...
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1answer
3k views

What uniform are these gentlemen wearing?

What uniform are these four guys wearing, and what medal is the central guy wearing? Possibilities are likely something Austro-hungarian or Romanian, possibly around 1900. Bonus question: what are ...
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1answer
129 views

Were the 1400s-1600s really not part of the “Middle Ages”? [closed]

I read something confusing on Wikipedia and an answer on Stack Exchange today: No terrestrial globes from Antiquity or the Middle Ages have survived. Then two paragraphs later: The earliest extant ...
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1answer
321 views

What language(s) were spoken in 11th century Romania?

Curious to know what languages would've been spoken and used in correspondences during this time, specifically in Transylvania.
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135 views

What were the contemporary European reactions of de Vlamingh's sightings of black swans?

Willem de Vlamingh is reportedly the first European to have seen black swans near modern-day Perth, Western Australia in 1697. The 'black swan' had existed in Europe as a metaphor for about fifteen ...
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110 views

What determined who would be on the front lines of a large infantry engagement? [duplicate]

In Ancient and Middle Aged European Armies, what decided whether a soldier was at the front lines or just in the normal center-back? Was it a status symbol or honor to be in the front lines? Please ...
6
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0answers
174 views

Has the 'indefensible-castles-for-nobles-to-discuss-but-peasants-to-gape-at' theory been proposed for Continental Western Europe?

I did try and make the title shorter but I didn't really know how to describe this as "the Liddiard and Morris theory" wouldn't make sense to many people. If someone can word it neater then ...
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2answers
2k views

Was there a European country that held a referendum about adopting English in universities?

I vaguely remember that there was a European country (not the UK or Ireland) that held a referendum about adopting English as the primary language of instruction in universities. The referendum failed....
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0answers
98 views

Is there any evidence of pre-European contact spread of Eurasian-origin diseases in Australia, e.g., from Kilwan traders? [closed]

I know that Indonesians had been in touch with Aboriginals, and that the Cholas made it to Australia as well. Even coins from the East African Kilwa Sultanate have been found in Australia! If there ...
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1answer
149 views

Were eastern weapons ever seen in medieval Europe and western weapons ever seen in medieval Asia? [closed]

Like could some trader in medieval France be selling a katana or urumi amongst his wares that he obtained in his travels? Could a merchant in Japan have a zweihander or flamberge in his collection?
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281 views

How did the Hansa organize river trade in the 14th and 15th centuries?

How did the Hansa accommodate the transition from sea to river trade along a trade route? Would river travel have been controlled by one group of people, e.g., Guild of the River Oder Merchants? Would ...
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0answers
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Do these depictions of hunt in medieval Catholic churches have the same symbolic meaning? If not, what is it?

I have come across 3 depictions of a hunt in Catholic churches. The first two are tiles that were on the floors of an English abbey and a church not far from Reims, France; I could not find any ...
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1answer
147 views

What percentage of the population were serfs by region/year?

Where can I find statistics on the percentage of the population that were serfs, ideally broken down by country/region and by year? Even very rough estimates would be helpful, but unfortunately I've ...
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6answers
465 views

How did Western leaders justify NATO's eastwards expansion after promising the Soviet leadership it won't happen?

Western leaders apparently promised Soviet premier Mikhail Gorbachev that NATO would not expand eastwards and threaten Soviet security interests. Leaders named include Baker, Bush, Genscher, Kohl, ...
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113 views

How did private property work in medieval France?

Were you required to purchase a land deed to get permission from the ruler of the area, or could you build wherever you wanted? If the latter is how it worked throughout Europe for the most part, I ...
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1answer
107 views

Were people really as haphazardly *burned at the stake* back in the day in Europe as they make it out to have been? [closed]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amalrician This is just one of countless articles/stories I've read over the years about how some crazy folks in Europe burned other, equally crazy folks at the stake -- ...
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0answers
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Please help decipher this artist signature in Hebrew [closed]

I acquired a couple years 2 paintings by the same artist. From my research, the signature is in Hebrew. The paintings were acquired in Austin, Texas but I don't think these are from United States but ...
6
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1answer
307 views

Is there a place in Europe that has never been Christian?

Before the advent of Catholic and Orthodox Christianity, Europe had numerous religions over at least 40 thousand years, as archaeologic evidence shows. Is there any place/community where Celtic, ...
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1answer
85 views

What was the societal structure of Celtic culture in the Hallstatt period? [closed]

What was the societal structure of Celtic culture in the Hallstatt period? There does not seem to be much information online about this. My preliminary research consists of looking on Wikipedia for ...
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2answers
1k views

Who were the first “businessmen” to rival the kings throughout the world? [closed]

The merchants seem to have existed for as long as human history. But when did they begin to "take over" the kings? By that I mean, by the time of the "tycoons" like the Oil and Train people of the ...
4
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1answer
235 views

What have been the major milestones in the creation of state literacy policies?

There have been times as literacy was not obligatory. So, many people were not able to read/write in their mother tongue, but it was just normal. Today, most people are literate, and this is a result ...
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0answers
47 views

What were the most popular destinations for British and American tourists on the Continent in the period 1880-1900?

How common was English and American travel to the Continent of Europe between 1880-1900? By businessmen, families, debutantes, honeymooners, politicians etc.

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