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Questions tagged [europe]

It is the second smallest continent, forming the Western extension of Eurasia.

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2answers
253 views

Did nutmeg really prevent infections during the Bubonic Plague?

Not sure if this comes under biology or history. Years ago, a chemistry professor gave us a short lesson on the history of nutmeg. He said, the priests in Europe wore pouches around their neck ...
78
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7answers
26k views

Why is the consensus that WW2 started on September 1, 1939 and not July 7, 1937?

Looking at Wikipedia, dates given are 1 September 1939 – 2 September 1945, which end in the defeat of Japan. However why is the starting date when Germany invaded Poland and not when the Japanese ...
-15
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1answer
197 views

Why the European Union choose to use a Nazi flag? [closed]

I wonder why the EU uses a Nazi flag like the one from this picture? Source: https://qph.fs.quoracdn.net/main-qimg-32598a7f739cbfe57c03e4011891984b
3
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1answer
306 views

Why did the maize-based society that Spain found in the Central Valley of Mexico not dominate over Europe?

· Was there something in the Mesoamerican cultures that put obstacles to growth and development? · Did American crops such as maize, cacao beans, and tobacco, compete unfavorably with European ...
3
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1answer
263 views

As newly independent countries after WWI, why didn't Baltic states have sovereignty dispute and war each other like other Eastern European countries?

After the WWI, many independent countries emerged and the borders between these countries, and also the existing Eastern European countries, were not clear, leading to territorial claims, disputes and ...
36
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2answers
5k views

Why didn't Europeans before Gutenberg print with woodblocks?

Before the invention of the printing press and movable type (and some related innovations) by Johannes Gutenberg, books in Europe were generally only reproduced if someone copied them by hand. In ...
21
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4answers
4k views

Has there ever been an archbishop or bishop younger than the 16-year-old James of Nicosia?

In 1456, King John II of Cyprus appointed his illegitimate son James as Latin Archbishop of Nicosia. James was just 16 at the time. James soon lost his position, being forced to flee the following ...
5
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0answers
61 views

Economic aftermath in Europe and the Middle East of the Black Death

The following excerpt is from Blinkist's summary of The Silk Roads by Peter Frankopan: Europe after the plague was an altogether different place. The population had fallen dramatically, but this ...
3
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1answer
101 views

How many people were there in a average Magdalenian group? (And what about Gravettian groups?)

The book "The Creation of Inequality" (Marcus & Fannery, 2012) says the Magdalenian groups were much larger than the Gravettian groups but doesn't provide a clear number (or I did not find them). ...
-1
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4answers
218 views

Did Europe experience forest deficits prior to 19th century?

I would like to understand if there were issues with forests in Europe prior to 19th century and, if so, what were the reasons behind them? Two versions that I have are overusing forests as the ...
11
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0answers
463 views

Who is this, probably royal, teenager?

This photo was found in the same envelope as a photo of the Prince Imperial, Louis Napoleon, (recently identified on this site by Evargalo). The photos (seven in all) were recently handed down on the ...
1
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1answer
110 views

Who was a Roman General for a short time?

I'm trying to remember the name and battle that a Roman General. I might be unintentionally mixing parts of it up with other historic parts. The story goes the Roman Empire need someone to lead their ...
35
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3answers
4k views

Who is this young 'Prince'?

The photo below was found in an envelope among a bundle of family photos which were recently handed down on the English side of my family. Aside from the photo itself, the only clues are as follows: ...
3
votes
2answers
244 views

Eastern Europe during middle ages, a world view [closed]

I am a Belgian man conversant in Dutch, French, English, German (so English is not my first language), therefore you read many mistakes. My question is this: in our class and country it seems that ...
11
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2answers
425 views

What did European people of the 5th century AD eat during spring and what was the availability?

It is commonly believed that winter during that age was a period of starvation, with very limited means of procuring food. If the above is true, what did the commoners (peasants, serfs, etc) had to ...
6
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2answers
329 views

Was it customary for young upper-middle class women to chew gum in public in German-speaking Europe?

I'm writing a fiction work and there is a scene about a young, well-educated, but stormy woman, willing to stretch the boundaries of what's allowed. I'm thinking about making her chew gum in public. ...
7
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3answers
718 views

How accurate is the quip: “Mongols, having already conquered half of Europe, decided the other half wasn't worth it”?

Erik Flint, writing in the voice of a heroine who is a professional historian, quipped: Mongols, having already conquered half of Europe, decided the other half wasn't worth it (emphasis added) ...
2
votes
1answer
215 views

Turko-Mongol horse tactics and Western European response

Did not seem that Western European armies stood up to Turco-Mongol military tactics such as the horse archer. Did these European armies ever learn to counter those tactics? The Slavs (Polish) had a ...
14
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4answers
293 views

What education was required for a woman to become a teacher in pre-WWII Germany?

When a woman wanted to become a teacher in Germany of the first half of 20th century, she had to attend a preparatory school for 2 years (Präparandenanstalt), and then spend 3-6 years at a female ...
29
votes
6answers
6k views

What is the most number of times someone has become leader of a European country?

Among monarchs, Henry VI (1422 to 1461, 1470 to 1471) and Edward IV (1461 to 1470, 1471 to 1483) both ruled England on two separate occasions. Hethum II of Armenia went one better, ruling three ...
13
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1answer
876 views

Could a person get from the outer districts of Vienna into the city center via the sewage system?

I'm writing a novel that plays in 1945 Vienna. There are characters who want to get from Währing (A in the image below) to the city center (B) undetected. Is this realistic/believable for them to ...
5
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1answer
159 views

When did medieval monarchs start being depicted with ermine fur garments?

Probably all medieval monarchs wore fur garments when the weather was cold enough. But what seems to be the normal medieval picture of monarch in civilian dress was to wear a long robe with a cloak ...
2
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0answers
109 views

What kind of musical instruments were used in ancient barbarian tribes?

I am a member of a reenactment group in Romania, and we mostly do Roman, Dacian tribes and other barbarian tribes (allies of Dacians). Some other members including myself want to form a band, and be ...
0
votes
5answers
467 views

Where were there growing economies in dark age Europe, excluding Iberia and Constantinople?

Question: Were there major places where the economy grew, inversely to wider situation, in the late Roman Empire and dark age Europe, c. 350-950? The examples that I can think of are Venice and the ...
42
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11answers
12k views

Why did Europeans (and not people in other regions) dominate oceans?

Having a brief look at civilization history, I find that Europeans have a significant dominance over other regions when it comes to sailing. This becomes more obvious after the 15th century when ...
2
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0answers
78 views

Primary sources on Medieval Christian depictions of non-Christians (in English)

I'm a history student and I'm looking for primary sources in English (not Latin) that could help me with my research. I'm trying to find primary sources preferably written by Christian monks about the ...
3
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0answers
138 views

The nationality of “Egbert Van Kampen”?

If you google a bit about the mathematician Egbert Van Kampen, almost all sources you'll find claim that he was born in Belgium in 1908. Does anyone have any reliable sources about this person's ...
22
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1answer
624 views

Was there a European response to the trail of tears?

This question is pretty straightforward. While looking into Victorian British beliefs about Americans and American history I began to wonder about European attitudes toward American Indians; and more ...
1
vote
0answers
103 views

At what point was Josip Broz Tito most popular? [closed]

I would take into consideration both elites and rest of the public. Period I'm interested in is from the end of the World War Two to his death.
5
votes
1answer
190 views

Could Romania have remained neutral in WWII? [closed]

Romania was neutral at the beginning of WWII, but then Marshall Antonescu (as he liked to be called) went to visit Hitler and then joined the war on the German side. Things have happened as they ...
1
vote
0answers
86 views

In what ways was early Renaissance Chinese technology more advanced than European technology [closed]

At the dawn of the Age of Discovery (15th century), how did Chinese technology compare with that of the Europeans who would soon encounter it? Were there areas where it was significantly more or less ...
86
votes
9answers
22k views

Did medieval scholars believe the Earth was round?

There seems to be almost a consensus that the medieval belief on flat earth is a myth. Wikipedia even has a whole article dedicated to this subject, and the general argument is that the "flat earth ...
4
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0answers
122 views

In what contexts did male friends kiss in Europe in the 1700s?

In Stanley Kubrick's film Barry Lyndon, there's an scene where the title character's mentor, Captain Grogan, is gunned down by French troops. As he lies dying he asks Barry to "kiss me, my boy, for we ...
28
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1answer
3k views

Was a passport needed to travel between UK and France in 1972?

In Hitchcock's 1972 film Frenzy (at about the time 00:54:55) a character says: We can get a day trip to France. You don't need a passport. (He is a commoner, no diplomatic status etc, in fact a ...
5
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0answers
121 views

Nazi Collaboration at an Institutional level in Poland

Following recent legal regulations in Poland prohibiting any association of Polish culpability with the Holocaust and concentration camps, the question that arises is whether there was any Polish ...
13
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2answers
418 views

During feudalism in Europe, was one's allegiance to the lord more or less important than the allegiance to the king?

So, let's say your feudal overlord is rebelling against the king. Who do you owe your allegiance to, the lord, or the king? It's best to fight for the one who's going to win, obviously, but what would ...
8
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2answers
371 views

How many languages did Leibniz speak?

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz was a German polymath. I've found information that says he was a polyglot who wrote primarily in Latin, French and German, but I cannot find any specific info about the other ...
3
votes
1answer
116 views

Which king of Burgundy sheltered two Robertians?

I am having trouble retrieving this information. A duke or king of Burgundy took custody of, I'm pretty sure, Odo and Robert, sons of Robert the Strong. It's possible that it was some later Robertians,...
5
votes
1answer
209 views

What was the military makeup of the Baltic tribes/Lithuania from 1200 to 1500?

There is quite a lot written on the Teutonic order and it's military, but I'm having a harder time finding any good English sources on the military of one of it's chief foes, Lithuania and the other ...
4
votes
1answer
300 views

Which ship sank and made the news for its chaotic evacuation around the year 1912?

A Romanian newspaper from April 1912 covers the Titanic's sinking, and mentions, in contrast to the orderly evacuation of the ship, the not so orderly evacuation of another (Note that the date is the ...
1
vote
1answer
144 views

What periods and locations in early European history had evidence based criminal trials?

What periods and locations in European history had evidence based criminal trials? I'm interested in creating a medieval role playing setting and some fictional narratives involving crime ...
3
votes
1answer
163 views

What was the conflict in Milan from 1041-1044?

I was researching the Pataria movement in Milan that began around 1045. I found mention of a compromise of Milan in 1044. This got me interested in these earlier events. The only information that I ...
9
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3answers
669 views

Why does Western Europe tend to have small 'in between' countries?

Why does Western Europe have small 'in between' countries? For example, Andorra is a tiny country between Spain and France. Another example is Luxembourg which is between France and Germany. Even ...
8
votes
1answer
242 views

Did German citizens need a visa to enter Switzerland in 1945?

I'm researching a story that plays in Europe immediately after the end of World War II. There is a character who is a German citizen and travels to Switzerland in 1945 (after the capitulation of ...
6
votes
0answers
227 views

Percentage of helmet owners in 15th century Europe

There already is a similar question, but it has been closed as unclear. I will attempt to post a clear question instead. Time : 15th century Country: medieval Europe excluding Eastern Roman Empire, ...
2
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2answers
808 views

What did medieval European knights do if they were defeated in battle?

I know that in medieval Japan, if samurai were defeated in battle or dishonored in any way they had to commit seppuku (killed themselves). I just wanted to know if medieval Europe had a similar rule.
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0answers
65 views

What were the dates & details of assassinations in Vienna, Austria of Bulgarian defectors Veselin Stoyov, Peter Niezamov, and Ivan Kolev (circa 1974)?

Anna Zechenter of the Institute of National Remembrance in Krakow, Poland has written an article entitled "KGB Poisons" which discloses that the 1974 kidnapping in Denmark of Boris Arsov, a Bulgarian ...
3
votes
2answers
236 views

Border controls in Western Europe in the 1970s

I'm interested in how reality of crossing country borders in Western Europe looked like in early 70s. Focusing specifically on traveling by car, train and on foot. I have found a bit of information ...
9
votes
3answers
3k views

Why did post-Roman rulers abandon tax-paid army?

According to C. Wickham's The Inheritance of Rome: Illuminating the Dark Ages 400-1000, pages 102-104, in 5th century rulers abandoned Roman tax-paid army in favor of medieval feudal one, which was ...
0
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1answer
94 views

Research on the unit “Mark” [closed]

Friends! First of all, thanks for your time and help. I'm conducting a research on the word "Mark": it all started in a forgotten language, meaning "forest". Since forests were natural borders, the ...