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Questions tagged [europe]

It is the second smallest continent, forming the Western extension of Eurasia.

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Was there an economic reason for Protestants' iconoclasm?

Europe underwent major economic upheavals during the creation of Protestantism (cf. E. Michael Jones, Barren Metal or Goy Guide to World History). Is this one reason why Protestants upheld iconoclasm? ...
Geremia's user avatar
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Why might Benjamin Franklin have considered Germans (except Saxons), Spaniards, Italians, French, Russians and Swedes "swarthy"?

Franklin (1751): the number of purely white people in the world is proportionably very small. All Africa is black or tawny. Asia chiefly tawny. America (exclusive of the new comers) wholly so. And in ...
user103496's user avatar
2 votes
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Why was William Tyndale executed but nothing happened to Miles Coverdale? [closed]

Why was William Tyndale executed but Miles Coverdale was not?
Betty Knowlton's user avatar
12 votes
3 answers
2k views

What is a quarter in 19th-century England converted to contemporary pints?

Note: I do have an analogous post up on the mathematics stack exchange here Copy-Pasted from there: "I've been going through and writing up solutions for Euler's Elements of Algebra Practice ...
Fuzzy Trex's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
159 views

How long did the 19th century Europe Grand Tour take?

I’m writing a story set it 1815 and I want it to be as close as possible to history. I know the countries that were visited and the routes they took, but I will love to know how much time it took ...
Ale's user avatar
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5 votes
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How did Vauban develop his parallel siege technique first used during the 1673 siege of Maastricht?

During the second to last siege before Maastricht Vauban directed the 1672 siege of Orsoy, where he used what had been the long standing zigzag of the trenches to approach the city (lower right of the ...
Bob516's user avatar
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4 answers
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What would military spies in 17th century Europe be looking for inside a city, before a siege?

In the article Een officier en een gentleman: Willem Norwood en het beleg van Maastricht, (An Officer and a Gentleman: William Norwood and the siege of Maastricht), on page 7 it mentions concern about ...
Bob516's user avatar
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What determined which defensive structures were built and where they were located for 17th European century cities?

Using this 1675 map of Maaseik, Belgium, for example, there are hornworks, bastions, and ravelins at specific locations around the outer wall of the city. What determines why certain structures are ...
Bob516's user avatar
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What were the areas of European countries in 1936 and 1949?

Are there sources (e.g. gazetteers or encyclopedia) that list the precise areas of the different European countries in ~1936 (before Germany's Anschluß with Austria), and again in ~1949 (after the ...
Uri Granta's user avatar
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Ranking Eastern Europe Communist regimes by severity of repression [closed]

I was wondering that the severity of repression, censorship, economic stagnation must have varied greatly across the Eastern bloc countries between 1945-1990. It may even have varied over the years in ...
Kutsit's user avatar
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What would "close confinement" look like for a Saxon count being punished by Henry V of Germany in the early 1100s?

While reading the Cambridge Medieval history collection I keep coming across 'confinement' or 'imprisonment' being used to punish or coerce nobles, kings, and even popes. I'm wondering what the ...
Matt's user avatar
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What is this large bronze medallion?

Searched many sites but nothing matches this particular lion.
Somanyquestions's user avatar
12 votes
1 answer
4k views

Did the Crisis of the late Middle Ages cause a notable expansion of wilderness in Europe?

There was a lot of wild forest in the early Middle Ages, around 75% in the 9th century according to Wikipedia, much of which was cleared during the population boom in the High Middle Ages. I also read ...
Alister Sinclair's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
112 views

How was ethnicity's role in the voting enfranchisement envisioned after the English Civil War?

I am reading Democracy in Europe: A History by Luciano Canfora. In his short section on the English Civil War he states There is another element in the Levellers' thinking that should also be taken ...
16π Cent's user avatar
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Is there any documented evidence that these three North American cities were named due to the locations of their namesakes?

Two years ago, I was studying an online atlas of the world and I happened to notice that there are three cities located in North America which have a geographical similarity with three cities located ...
user57467's user avatar
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What was Iceland officially & commonly called before 1918 (1874~)?

In 1918, The Kingdom of Iceland was founded. In 1944, it changed to just Iceland. I have researched about what Iceland was originally called, and apparently, it's first name was given to the person ...
Iceland_questionaire's user avatar
10 votes
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What was Portugal and Spain's primary export which sparked their trade with Africa in the early 15th century?

I’ve read so many resources about how Europe’s desire to trade with the east, and the resistance by the Ottoman Empire to gain access was what triggered their voyage around the African continent, and ...
Ja Superior's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
332 views

Traditionally, did Europeans not heat milk before drinking it?

My impression was that before modern pasteurization and refrigeration, most cultures that drank milk considered it a good idea to heat milk before drinking it and so usually did heat milk before ...
user103496's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
278 views

Why the wording "land war" rather than just "war"?

Many media outlets call the Russian-Ukraine war the biggest "land war" in Europe since WW2. Examples: The Economist (2022-11-18): biggest land war in Europe since 1945 Reuters (2023-09-12):...
user103496's user avatar
3 votes
2 answers
255 views

What was the ethno-linguistic makeup of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth?

What was the ethno-linguistic makeup of the Rzeczpospolita, that is, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth prior to the partitions? EDIT: Clarification, asking what were the percentages to total ...
Markku P.'s user avatar
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What was Martin Luther's incentive for reformation? [closed]

Luther was both a theologian and a politician. How much of his reformation stemmed from his political side of consideration?
Albert Yu's user avatar
4 votes
2 answers
3k views

Why wasn’t Japan colonized by the European empires?

Why wasn’t Japan colonized by the European empires? That is a question that I have some doubts, European countries like Portugal had already been there, but they never colonized that land.
João Schmidt's user avatar
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124 views

Does anyone recognize these uniforms?

Need assistance identifying the country of origin of a painting depicting men at war. I have also included pictures of the back in case anyone knows the language and can narrow it down. The language ...
Snowdrop430's user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
427 views

What did Europeans do with captured war elephants?

I recently saw this rather tongue-in-cheek graphic: Now I have no idea regarding the veracity of the above, but assuming it is somewhat true it begs the question: If Europeans didn't eat them, what ...
Sophía Sugondèz's user avatar
-2 votes
1 answer
242 views

Why were eastern European states larger than western European states for much of history?

For reference, ever since the Treaty of Verdun in 843, large, centralized states in western Europe seemed to be the exception rather than the norm. Of course, there are exceptions, such as England and ...
Corsair64's user avatar
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What anti-smuggling measures were implemented on the border between Ukraine and Hungary in the late 1990s and early 2000s?

Closely related cross-site: Why did Hungary joining the E.U. cause oil prices fall to be only marginally higher than they were in Ukraine? Somewhat related cross-site: Were schoolteachers really paid ...
EJoshuaS - Stand with Ukraine's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
324 views

Is it true that some early modern Europeans refused to believe giraffes existed?

I remember reading or hearing somewhere that some of the first Europeans to see a giraffe in Europe refused to believe that such a creature could really exist. Presumably they thought the giraffe(s) ...
Tim's user avatar
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0 answers
142 views

Was wool packing a main task for medieval peasants?

In Europe/UK, would a main task for peasants/working classes been to pack wool? And, if so, roughly what dates would this have been please? What did the entire process involve from obtaining the ...
Lori's user avatar
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4 votes
1 answer
313 views

Were the Western World's general political and ideological consensus and consequent actions primarily responsible for the global ending of slavery?

Would one be accurate in stating that it was the general ideological and political consensus and subsequent actions of the Western World during the early to mid 1800s that were primarily responsible ...
Keith626's user avatar
18 votes
3 answers
535 views

Would a common person in the 18th century have heard Mozart's music during his lifetime?

Mozart was and is one of the most influential musicians and today nearly everyone knows his name and probably some of his famous compositions. During his lifetime he certainly was a well known ...
CKA's user avatar
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(How) Did criminals in the middle ages get treatment for injuries?

Were criminals in the middle ages able to get treatment for injuries, and if so, how? I mean criminals such as bandits who wouldn't be able to seek whatever medical care was normally available, even ...
justforplaylists's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
174 views

Who is 'Ebinichibel' mentioned in the Borgia Map?

Wikipedia:BorgiaMap page gives this detail, The Borgia map includes a legend referring to Ebinichibel, who is described as "the Saracen Ethiopian king with his dog-headed people". Is this ...
Samid's user avatar
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2 answers
222 views

To what extent has ideographic script contributed to the unification of China?

The different languages of Europe are, by Chinese standards, just successive variants of one language. But the phonetic alphabet is so flexible that the same set of letters can spell almost any ...
Sinkingdom's user avatar
40 votes
3 answers
23k views

Did medieval peasants work 150 days a year?

The following meme arrived in my inbox. Peasants in the medieval era worked just 150 days a year on average. The church believed it was crucial to keep them content by making frequent required ...
DJClayworth's user avatar
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3 votes
0 answers
198 views

Was there a time when Montenegro executed all of its millionaires?

I bought the complete works of G. K. Chesterton for $1 for my Kindle and read them. Somewhere in all those volumes (as I remember) he asserts that Montenegro executed all of its millionaires (and ...
B. Goddard's user avatar
2 votes
3 answers
207 views

How would a musician travel from Venice to Dresden around 1700?

I'm writing a historical fiction TV pilot and I need some help from the history buffs here. One of my characters, a young, aspiring, musician needs to travel from Venice to Dresden, Germany. I suspect ...
Riddle Leaf Films's user avatar
-1 votes
1 answer
168 views

Is there a database of wars in Europe since 1945?

I'm currently improving a Timeline I build some time ago, this Timeline of Wars in Europe since 1945. I did used several sources, including Wikidata, to get the list of conflicts to include. Yet, ...
James's user avatar
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3 votes
0 answers
108 views

What is "trek-leertje" and what it was used for in the 17th century Dutch Republic?

Encountered this expression in the writing of the Dutch scientist Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In this passage from his Arcana naturae detecta (another version little different) , he describes a tool that ...
d_e's user avatar
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1 vote
0 answers
117 views

How difficult would it have been for a European to obtain access to US scientific journals in 1945?

On May 1, 1945, volume 158 of the Journal of Biologic Chemistry was published. I'd like to establish to what degree –and how soon thereafter– its content may have been accessible in continental Europe ...
m.a.a.'s user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
210 views

What were the goals of the lesser powers in the Congress of Vienna 1814-1815?

Going into the Congress of Vienna, the Great Powers (usually defined as Great Britain, France, Russia, Austria, and Prussia) had many goals in mind of what they wanted out of the negotiations. In fact,...
MrMineHeads's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
147 views

What is this Eastern European military uniform?

These photographs are of my great-granduncle who lived in the village of Velyki Laz, just outside of Uzhhorod in today's western Ukraine. He was born in 1905. I would like to identify the uniforms ...
Elizabeth Roser's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
764 views

Are there any examples of two medieval kingdoms trying to unify but eventually failing to do so?

Recently, I started to read about history as a hobby like I used to when I was a kid. I realized that reading about "generic history" does not do it for me anymore. Instead I have some ...
ghost's user avatar
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27 votes
2 answers
5k views

What was a plausible timetable for a train journey across Europe in 1870?

I'm writing historical fiction set in 1870 (June, some weeks before the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian war) in which some of the protagonists are traveling by train across Europe, from Calais to ...
rwallace's user avatar
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0 votes
3 answers
523 views

Did it really take until 1990 for "Europe"/UK to switch from glass bottles of milk to cartons? [closed]

I came across this weird claim: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milk_delivery#Europe By 1975, 94% of milk was in glass bottles, but in 1990, supermarkets started offering plastic and carton containers, ...
Centilli's user avatar
5 votes
2 answers
1k views

Why did the Vikings stop raiding Europe?

Was it because of their defeats by Alfred and the settlement of Normandy? Were there issues at home which changed their focus? I did search through quite a few of the questions on here, but did not ...
FlaStorm32's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
187 views

How did public opinion of the wars change from 19th to the 21th century?

This question is inspired by a discussion I had with my friend recently, about ordinary people's perception and support of the many wars in the 19 and 20th century. Nowadays, the overwhelming majority ...
Legolas131's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
121 views

Columbus 1492 - how many years for news to reach all Europe (including Ottoman empire)? [duplicate]

After Columbus reached the Americas, how many years did it take for news to reach all of the capitals of Europe (including the Ottoman empire)?
Maximus1987's user avatar
8 votes
4 answers
4k views

What sorts of people were popular celebrities in 17th to 19th century Europe?

I'm writing fiction set in a world similar to pre-modern Europe, and there needs to be a conversation about celebrities with a person who doesn't know of any of that society's celebrities. Hence my ...
Monty Wild's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
68 views

Was Ottoman control a factor in the voyage taken by Christopher Columbus? [duplicate]

I am reading A People's History of The United States by Howard Zinn and it says after the Ottomans conquered Constantinople they controlled the land routes to Asia, making sea routes necessary. But I ...
EsotericSloth's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
165 views

When did the cost of living differences between Switzerland and neighboring countries became noticeable?

Today it is widely known that prices of general goods in Switzerland are somewhat double those of Europe (rough generalization). There are a number of factors that contribute to this, notably the ...
embedded_dev's user avatar

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