Stack Exchange Network

Stack Exchange network consists of 175 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers.

Visit Stack Exchange

Questions tagged [soviet-union]

The Soviet Union or USSR (1922–1991) was a socialist state in Eurasia. After the 1924 death of founding leader Lenin (who led the October Revolution in 1917), Stalin established a planned economy and suppressed political opposition. After World War II, the Soviet Union emerged as one of the world's two superpowers, opposing the USA in the Cold War. 1980s leader Gorbachev attempted reform with perestroika and glasnost but the country collapsed in 1991.

0
votes
3answers
163 views

How (not why) did the Bolshevik party seize such complete control of the All-Russian Congress of Soviets?

How (not why) did the Bolshevik party seize such complete control of the All-Russian Congress of Soviets ("the supreme governing body of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic from 1917 ...
2
votes
1answer
296 views

Why did Stalin exile Trotsky instead of killing or imprisoning him?

Leon Trotsky, one of the original founders of the Bolshevik Revolution, was strongly opposed to the leadership and policies of Joseph Stalin. In response to Trotskys public criticism of him, Stalin ...
8
votes
1answer
670 views

Where can I find documents from the Nuremberg trials about war crimes of the Wehrmacht in the Soviet Union?

I want to read documents that were used to prove German war crimes in the Soviet Union, incl. crimes against civilians and treatment of Soviet prisoners of war. So far I found the following: ...
21
votes
4answers
7k views

Why did the Germans forbid the possession of pet pigeons in Rostov-on-Don in 1941?

Photograph made by Max Alpert shows a dead boy holding a pigeon. It seems that the child has been tortured before he was killed. Source: Federal Archive Agency of Russia, Russian state archive of ...
53
votes
7answers
11k views

How did the USSR manage to innovate in an environment characterized by government censorship and high bureaucracy?

Despite the high bureaucracy in the Soviet Union, some design bureaus still achieved spectacular feats in science and engineering (mostly in defense and aerospace) e.g. Mir space station, Soyuz ...
2
votes
0answers
130 views

What did Frank Sinatra think of the Sinatra Doctrine?

Frank Sinatra died seven years after the introduction of the Sinatra Doctrine in the Soviet Union. I'm wondering if he ever commented on it, especially since the Soviets named it after him.
18
votes
2answers
1k views

Why did Jodrell Bank assist the Soviet Union to collect data from their spacecraft in the mid 1960's?

I've just listened to the short BBC News audio podcast clip How British academics spied on the superpowers: Tim O’Brien from the Jodrell Bank radio telescope discusses 50 year old recordings which ...
0
votes
0answers
85 views

How many of the secret agents betrayed by Aldrich Ames were executed during Gorbachev's tenure?

Basically, I've always been a big fan of Gorbachev and, knowing that the CIA spies spying on the USSR were betrayed right before his arrival on the Soviet political scene, I was wondering if he had ...
3
votes
3answers
417 views

To what extent were practitioners of Judaism persecuted during the Soviet Union?

I know that as a result of the policy that atheism was to be the only public religion, the Soviet Union did their best to attack Christianity. However, I am interested in knowing the extent that ...
0
votes
1answer
254 views

Why were the Soviets better at replacing their lost men and material? [duplicate]

Battle of Kursk is considered a Soviet decisive victory, no doubt it was the last major German offensive at the Eastern front. But why so? Casualties indicate the Soviets suffered 1 million ...
1
vote
0answers
154 views

Did German civilians really offer the Red Army to publicly shoot 30-40 civilians in exhange for free food?

According to this article (Russian), in June 1945 General Serov reported to Beriia about the following incident. On May 28th, 1945, a Red Army soldier was shot at by someone from a window in Berlin’s ...
9
votes
3answers
306 views

What proportion of the population of Soviet Union were taken into custody by the state during Stalin's time?

Started reading The Gulag Archipelago, and its sort of mind numbing, the scale of it described in the book. Some were taken and summarily executed, some were tried and executed, some were sent to ...
-5
votes
1answer
193 views

What political party did Stalin belong to? [closed]

What political party did Stalin belong to? I know he identified as a communist, but he didn't act like one: he occupied a somewhat large portion of the Baltic states(Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia). He ...
4
votes
1answer
560 views

Did the Soviet military in fact fear that the Space Shuttle would be used as an orbital bomber? If so, why?

I have read on this blog (scroll down to section "what happened to make it fail) dedicated to failed cold war space projects that the Soviet leadership was deeply concerned about the STS, fearing that ...
29
votes
6answers
6k views

What are the text and subtext of this 1949 Soviet cartoon?

Over on Wikipedia, we find this cover from the March 1949 issue of Soviet satire mag Krokodil: The person who uploaded it to Wikipedia captioned it "Antisemitic caricature of rootless cosmopolitan." ...
3
votes
2answers
138 views

Border crossings between USSR and Afghanistan in the 1960s

For a (fictional, but set in the real world) story set in 1962, I need to get my protagonists from the USSR into Afghanistan. I've done some research and found no reliable information about the ...
1
vote
0answers
130 views

Under the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, how many of each aircraft did the USSR receive?

The Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact was signed 1939 Aug 23, and lasted till 1941 Jun 22. During that time, how many aircraft were delivered to the Soviet Union, and what types were they? I'm especially ...
5
votes
1answer
268 views

What happened to Soviet POWs taken by non-German armies on WW2 Eastern front?

I have initially posted this question in relation to the Romanian army, which was second to the German on the Eastern front, but I have updated the title to include all other non-German armies on that ...
2
votes
2answers
272 views

Did Army Group Center have easier going up to Smolensk than between Smolensk and Moscow?

To try to get an answer to this question, I would like to explore its factual bases, including, but not limited to the following: 1) How did the road/railroad communication network west of Smolensk ...
0
votes
1answer
243 views

WWII - documents on turn around point in German Foreign strategy - “stop we are not going to pass Finland to USSR”

I want to find the turn around point in German Foreign strategy: ok we leave Finland to USSR - stop we would not do it. In documents. Some of them are there: https://archive.org/search.php?query=...
1
vote
2answers
297 views

Did Soviet Union really consider using atomic bomb against US aircraft battlegroup?

In this video youtube narrator says that: "During Cold War Soviet Union considered American battle-group such a dire threat that they predicted the only way to defend against them would be by use ...
3
votes
1answer
195 views

What were traffic lights like in the USSR?

I'm interested in the design of illuminated traffic lights (for automobiles) in the USSR, especially the old history. I tried to google this for what year the first illuminated traffic light was ...
21
votes
3answers
9k views

What was the liquor that was based on petrol which was produced in the USSR during the Second World War?

I have a 1971 Spanish edition of the book "Stuka Pilot" by Hans-Ulrich Rudel where he recounts his memories of war. In the second chapter, in which he talks about the first combats of "Operation ...
2
votes
1answer
297 views

Why weren't German V-2 weapons used against the Russians? [duplicate]

Late in World War II, the Nazis deployed the V-2 weapons against Britain. That is, early missiles were launched against mainly British cities from bases in France, as "strategic" strikes. Apparently, ...
1
vote
2answers
293 views

What was the content of Solzhenitsyn's critique of the West?

Solzhenitsyn is a dissident writer in the former Soviet Union. He's famous for writing the Gulag Archipelago. I recall that he eventually managed to escape to the West, in fact to the USA where after ...
-3
votes
1answer
237 views

What Happened To Men In the Soviet Union? [closed]

Ignoring the question but trying to understand the context of one part of the answer: Men disappearing , Soviet style I searched for what this could mean and came up with nothing. Many Soviet men ...
4
votes
1answer
241 views

How did the Apollo-Soyuz test project affect the relationship between the USSR and USA during the cold war?

Did the Apollo-Soyuz test project really impact the relationship of the the USA and USSR politically? And if so, in what way?
8
votes
1answer
694 views

Did the Soviet Union hand over thousands of Jews to the Nazis in the spirit of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact?

The most recent episode of the Italian documentary TV series Ulisse - Il piacere della scoperta (Ulysses - The pleasure of discovery) covered the deportation of Jews from Italy, and at some point it ...
6
votes
3answers
258 views

How much did the western world know about the Soviet Union pre-WWII?

This question is inspired by being surprised at the insight of George Orwell's Animal Farm. For some reason, I had the impression that the western world was in the dark about the horribleness of the ...
-1
votes
2answers
244 views

What is this Soviet Uniform? Made in 1975

I recently got this uniform off a Russian website, but I the website did't specify which it was, and I haven't been able to identify it using google searches? Anyone here know?
2
votes
0answers
266 views

Why did many scientists spy for the Soviet Union and contribute to their atomic program?

I want to understand why some scientists collaborated with the Soviet Union and its atomic program during and after the WWII. What I want to know is if there were some specific characteristics or ...
10
votes
1answer
577 views

What was the logic behind Stalin's brutality?

In this article Stalin's behaviour is argued to be the result of a calculated and fanatical strategy. Stephen Kotkin's book 'Stalin' is referenced, and the suggestion is that criticism of Stalin as ...
6
votes
2answers
177 views

How and when did the border regime change when the USSR broke up?

According to my knowledge, borders between individual SSR's were generally open and consisted just of signs during Soviet times. With the breakup of the union, the problem of border security arose. ...
2
votes
1answer
142 views

What did Russia do about Caucasus oil after the collapse of the Soviet Union?

During World War II, something like 72% of the Soviet Union's oil came from Baku, Azerbaijan, in the Caucasus. More like 86% if you count Grozny (Chechnya), and other Caucasus territories, leaving ...
5
votes
1answer
3k views

Was PepsiCo really sixth largest military force?

There are several claims on the internet that for a brief time PepsiCo owned the sixth largest military force in the world. You can read about it, e.g., at Wikipedia. This seems quite fishy to me, so ...
-4
votes
1answer
276 views

Can you identify this Soviet uniform from the 1970s to ~90s

I really like this uniform, but I don't know what the name of it is or where to find one. It would be really nice if somebody could identify this uniform for me.
14
votes
1answer
1k views

Did Truman threaten a nuclear strike if the Soviet Union didn't withdraw from Iran in 1946?

In episode 4 of Oliver Stone's documentary series, Untold History of the United States, Stone claims that then-president Truman issued an ultimatum to the Soviet Union: either withdraw from Iran (...
-2
votes
1answer
139 views

Stand of Yemen in the Soviet-Afghan War of 1979? [closed]

Just wanted to know the role of Democratic Yemen in the Soviet-Afghan war. Like: "What did it do? Who were its allies and enemies?" Yemen was actually really disturbed by the Yemenite war. The ...
6
votes
0answers
116 views

Are tech workers in the Siberian city of Tomsk really “descendants of those sent to the gulags”?

I've been listening to the BBC podcast The Hackers of Siberia. The notes on the web page include: Intellectuals banished to an inhospitable land, settled in Siberia and created a pool of talent ...
-1
votes
1answer
175 views

Role of Egypt in Soviet-Afghan war

Just wanted to know the role of Egypt in the Soviet-Afghan war..like what did it do,who were it’s allies and enemies...I have researched on Wikipedia but didn’t find anything useful except that it had ...
3
votes
1answer
641 views

What was the role of Nigeria in Soviet invasion of Afghanistan [closed]

I'm required to present a report on the role and position of Nigeria on the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. But as far as I know , Nigeria had a civil war raging inside the country. I've scanned ...
2
votes
2answers
483 views

Has the training of Russian troops improved since 1989? [closed]

Recently, USA has excluded Pakistan from military training list. On the flip side, Pakistan has signed an agreement with Russian Federation for the training of its officers. My personal assessment is, ...
8
votes
7answers
983 views

Why didn't the discrepancy in the Kursk casualty ratio work against the Soviets?

According to conventional wisdom, Soviet to German loss ratio at Kursk and immediately after in Soviet offensives was around 3:1 in men, and 5:1 (or more) in armored vehicles (tanks and self-propelled ...
2
votes
1answer
404 views

What was the reason for the geographical error in Churchill's “Iron Curtain” speech 5th March 1946?

In his celebrated speech, at which he used the term Iron Curtain at Fulton, Missouri, on 5th March 1946, with President Harry Truman present, Churchill said the following: From Stettin in the ...
2
votes
0answers
127 views

When did the modern use of left and right solidify [closed]

All of the pre 60s references to left and right seem odd. Its more of a praxis thing than anything else. For example Lenin warned about leftwing communism. Hitler never opposed the left wing. And ...
9
votes
3answers
2k views

Did a German plane really land in Moscow in 1941 May?

I just read this small Wikipedia page about a 1941 Purge of the Red Army. There is something rather shocking: In May, a German Junkers Ju 52 landed in Moscow, undetected by the ADF beforehand, ...
11
votes
1answer
328 views

Why did Gorbachev go to see “Prince Igor” after the August 1991 coup attempt?

After the 1991 coup attempt in the Soviet Union failed, Mikhail and Raisa Gorbachev arrived back in Moscow in the wee hours of August 21. That night or the night after, it was reported on US news ...
1
vote
1answer
335 views

Historical accuracy of gulag archipelago [closed]

How empirically and historically accurate is The Gulag Archipelago, by Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn?
1
vote
0answers
312 views

What is the correct timeline of events for the boycott of the Olympic Games 1980 in Moscow

Coming from the recent question of How did the US government manage to enforce the 1980 boycott of the Olympic Games in Russia? and a comment in that thread I kept wondering. Who was the first and ...
5
votes
4answers
667 views

Is there any footage of the Chernobyl explosion?

I know there is a lot of footage of the aftermath of the Chernobyl accident, but is there any footage of the explosion itself? In a documentary about the Chernobyl disaster it was stated that there ...