Questions tagged [crusades]

Questions pertaining to a series of military campaigns sanctioned by the Pope in an effort to restore Christian control of the Holy Lands. These campaigns were spread out over a period dating from around 1095 through 1290.

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140 views

Why did the later Crusades seemingly focus more on naval traversal?

I was studying some general Crusade maps and I noticed the first crusades seemed to be more land based as compared to the latter ones and I was wondering exactly why that was (besides just changing ...
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264 views

What are the origins of this pendant?

I'm trying to identify the origins of a metal pendant that features some engravings and red semitransparent stones or glass. The pendant appears Christian in its symbology and came into my possession ...
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1answer
241 views

Military reforms after the battle of Manzikert?

After the battle of Manzikert and during Alexius's reign was there any attempt towards military reform to go back to the theme peasant-soldier system instead of mercenaries? In John Julius Norwich's ...
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Is today's Old City of Jerusalem the Jerusalem of the Crusades' period?

In 1099 the Christian crusaders besieged the walled city of Jerusalem and took it. Here is a map of the Old City of Jerusalem today: It clearly shows the walls (I don't know when they were built) ...
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370 views

Was there the idea of “peaceful Crusades”?

Was there the idea of "peaceful Crusades", which had symbolic meanings for pilgrims, or was it just the political invasion of Palestine territory, initiated by religious people (Pope Sylvester II and ...
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237 views

What was the military makeup of the Baltic tribes/Lithuania from 1200 to 1500?

There is quite a lot written on the Teutonic order and it's military, but I'm having a harder time finding any good English sources on the military of one of it's chief foes, Lithuania and the other ...
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1answer
165 views

What was the Hospitaller gonfalon like in the 12th and 13th centuries?

The Templar Order had a gonfalon (a military standard of a specific type) of black and white called the beauseant (I have come to prefer the spelling most common in the book I first took it from ...
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801 views

Do we know where in Clermont was the second Council of Clermont held?

I know that the second Council of Clermont was (of course) in Clermont, Auvergne but do we know where (in terms of venue) it was held? Which church, hall or public venue that Pope Urban II gave his ...
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388 views

Jerusalem 1187: How would Saladin's army have laid siege to the walls?

BACKGROUND In fall of 1187 Saladin's "12,000 professional cavalrymen [and] 30,000 volunteers" arrived at Jerusalem and began a two week siege, assaulting the walls with towers, arrows, rocks, and ...
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1answer
149 views

Was the Vistula delta inhabited by Slavic tribes or Baltic tribes?

Specifically I'm talking about the area in between the Nogat and Vistula river. Googling maps of Old Prussian territory seem to have a mix of including this land and not including it. This map ...
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860 views

Jerusalem 1187: How did ethnicity impact Saladin's army?

This is intended to be the first (and longest) of a series questions about the Siege of Jerusalem in 1187. It was originally one massive question, but the community rightly recommended that I break it ...
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Why did Stephen II of Blois (father of King Stephen of England) abandon the First Crusade in 1098 knowing how much he would lose by doing so?

Having taken the crusader’s vow and raised an army of thousands, why did Stephen II of Blois forsake the enormous prestige associated with crusading and risk shame and accusations of cowardice by ...
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477 views

What was Pope Innocent III's response to the Children's crusade led by Stephan of Cloyes?

In 1212, two groups involving children embarked on crusades to the Holy Land. They are generally lumped together and known as the Children's Cruade. They were not true crusades in the sense that the ...
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Did Muslim states hire Western European knights as mercenaries before the Crusades?

In the book Hattin by John France the following claim is made: The fighting qualities of western knights were widely recognized in the Mediterranean lands, and they were often employed even by ...
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898 views

Why didn't the Christian kingdoms in Hispania participate in the crusades? [closed]

I have read in the history of crusaders that Catholic kingdoms in Europe including England and France and Holy Roman Empire participated in the crusades but not Spain, any clear reason for that? ...
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480 views

Please outline how Philip II gained Normandy from the Third Crusade

I saw a video which summarized this, but now I can't find anything close to it. I believe that Philip made some type of agreement with Richard Lionheart before they went on the Crusades. Phillip came ...
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3answers
804 views

What does the following picture represent in historical context?

This is a picture just sent by one of my friends. He is trying to convey some message. I didn't get him, neither did I get the picture.
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347 views

Do any sources confirm this quote from Pope Urban II's speech at the Council of Clermont?

according to chronicle of Robert the Monk, Pope Urban II said - ... this land which you inhabit, shut in on all sides by the seas and surrounded by the mountain peaks, is too narrow for your ...
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378 views

How did the crusaders “know” that they found the Holy Blood?

The Basilica of the Holy Blood, a church in Bruges, claims they hold the Holy Blood and the main thesis is that it was brought to Bruges by the Second Crusade. Note that in 1964, Nicolas Huyghebaert ...
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1answer
249 views

What was the status of peasants who left to join the People's Crusade?

The 1096 People's Crusade were joined mostly by peasants, led by the priest Peter the Hermit independently of their lords. What was the status of these peasants' trip? Were they free to take trips and ...
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1answer
224 views

Why is Hungary geographically important to travel between Europe and the Middle East?

In learning a little about the People's Crusade and the First Crusade, it seems Hungary is important as a sort of gateway to the east. The crusades must pass through Hungary in order to get to the ...
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521 views

Why didn't the knights of Western Europe drive the Moors out of Granada in 1212 when they invaded Iberia?

In 1212, the knights of the Holy Roman Empire, France, and Spain pushed the Moors far down the Iberian Peninsula... but why didn't they go on and drive the Muslims completely off that peninsula? Did ...
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Who is the most recent (non Bush) father son pair who have invaded the Middle East?

Disclaimer: This is NOT meant to incite political debate. I am looking for a historical answer. Presidents George H W Bush and George W Bush both invaded the Middle East. Before these two, what ...
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535 views

Which Muslim factions during the Crusade used the crescent in their flags or banners?

According to NSNoob comments on Did Hungarian Army ever use Crescent banners? Crescent was used by Muslims since the Crusades. Wikipedia seems to agree. For example: the article on Star and ...
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Motivations of the the First Crusade [duplicate]

What sort of balance in motivation existed for the first Crusade between answering a plea for assistance from the Byzantine Empire and reclamation of Jerusalem? Obviously it would vary between ...
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464 views

What gift did Saladin send to Richard when he was ill?

What gift did Saladin send to Richard when he was ill? This is a question I got asked in m H|W and I didn't find it. Please, can anyone help me?
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Why did Baldwin of Boulogne proclaim Edessa a County, not a Kingdom?

[Edessa was] ruled by Thoros, who was officially a vassal of the Turks but in reality acted independently. He did not expect that situation to continue for very much longer without help, so he offered ...
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To What Extent Were St. Augustine's Just War Principles Used In The First Crusade?

The question is mostly self-explanatory; however I want to state I have read a few books so I am aware of abuses and also some of the origins of the Crusade. So what I am really asking for is ...
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The crusades against the Moors [closed]

It seems to me that recent history portrays the Christian crusaders as evil and brutal for taking back Spain from the Islamic Moors who conquered them and toppled the Spanish government and ruled over ...
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4answers
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Why didn't “Europe” support the Byzantine Empire against the Turks?

Why didn't Catholic Europe support the Byzantine empire against the Turks? Or did they? How? Yes, there were some differences between the Catholic and Orthodox interpretation of christianity but the ...
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253 views

When and why did Erasmus ask whether the Pope would govern the east better than the Turk?

Owen Chadwick says in The Reformation: The European powers were more frightened of each other than of the Turk. A certain scepticism began to appear; Erasmus asked cynically whether if a crusade ...
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558 views

Where to find a list of participants in The Crusades? [closed]

I am curious as to where a compiled list of participants in The Crusades exist and how would one access this, particularly of European Crusaders but would find it interesting of any records of both ...
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Is there any historical basis for the red/white color scheme of the Assassins?

I recently saw a documentary about the Crusades, and during the scene in which Saladin is almost assassinated by the historical order of Assassins, they are portrayed as wearing plain white clothes ...
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Anthropophagy perpetrated by crusaders?

King Tafur's men reportedly ate human flesh during the first crusade. The same was said of King Richard and his men during the second crusade: King Richard shall warrant There is no flesh so ...
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1answer
523 views

Baldwin IV, the Leper King

Baldwin IV was crowned King of Jerusalem, from 1174 until his death in 1186 at the ripe old age of 24. As a child, his tutor, William of Tyre, discovered he had leprosy. Understanding that he was the ...
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902 views

Where did the Crusaders go after 1291?

With most historians saying the Crusades stopped in 1291, and the disappearance of the Crusader States/Outremer, I'm left to wonder: what happened to the Europeans who had built a life there? Did they ...
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What did the Crusaders really wear?

What did those who walked the First Crusade wear? I'm not just talking about the noblemen etc. but also the poor people who allegedly went (or is that a myth?). And how did they dress according to ...
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1answer
154 views

Were there buttons in the Holy Land?

I'm looking at clothing and dress from the period during the crusades and I suspect that buttons might have been something the crusaders took back with them from the Levant. They start popping up in ...
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275 views

Did the Christians plagiarize the holy war concept? [closed]

In my other question: Christian and Etruscan end of times I've asked why the Romans, the Byzantines and the Etruscans, in times of trouble, devoted themselves to contemplating the afterlife and did ...
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How did Richard I sail through the strait of Gibraltar?

Here's something that puzzles me. At the start of the third crusade, Richard I sailed to the holy land around Europe, through the strait of Gibraltar and across the Mediterranean. At the time, the ...
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768 views

What specifc training occurred for members of medieval military orders?

What were the dominant martial and clerical themes to the training of knights in medieval military orders? Were there specific fighting or training techniques, or weapons, adopted to meet religious ...
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1answer
2k views

How historically accurate are the Assassin's Creed games? [closed]

I've been highly entertained recently watching youtube videos of a game series called Assassin's Creed. It tells the story of a family who are members of a Order (called Assasins) who have waged a war ...
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Why didn't the European Christians take back Constantinopole?

Constantinople was the focal point for the Fourth Crusade. The Christians lost and Constantinople went to the Ottoman Empire. Then, the European Christians became stronger and went about colonizing ...
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742 views

In England, how many Jews died during the persecutions of the crusades during 1190-1200?

As is well known Steven Runciman, a British historian known for his work on the Middle Ages, definitively clarified what the Holy War had been: "The Holy War itself was nothing more than a long act of ...
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Why did the Fourth Crusade sack Constantinople? [closed]

If the Crusade was going to help the Byzantines to drive away their enemies, as well as attack the Holy land, why did it turn on the Byzantine Empire?
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Are there any historians who believe that the crusades were not motivated as a distraction from internal conflicts?

I was just debating with a Catholic acquaintance. He ascribed merit to the Catholic crusades and said that many historians agreed with him. Are there any historians who believe that the crusades were ...
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345 views

Did loot from the 4th Crusade turn up in interesting places?

The horses of St. Mark were taken to Venice. Are there any other objects that are known to have turned up elsewhere?
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How did Medieval armies survive the use of mail armor in the deserts of the Middle East?

Something that has long puzzled me is the use of full mail hauberks and the like in the Crusades. How did Crusaders and their various enemies avoid cooking inside their armor? I know many of them ...
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278 views

Was Saladin Agnostic?

In the movie "Kingdom of Heaven", Saladin was portrayed as somewhat agnostic. He has been portrayed this way in literature as well, if I recall correctly. Is there a basis to this?
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What was the status of Arab Christians during the crusades?

Did Arab Christians take an active role in the crusades in the Holy Land or at any point on their trip to the Holy Land. Or were they victims of the crusaders? Did the crusaders typically ...